Search this website

Feed aggregator

Assessing the cone of economy in patients with spinal disease using only a force plate: an observational retrospective cohort study

Eur Spine J. 2021 Apr 20. doi: 10.1007/s00586-021-06836-x. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort with multiple regression modeling.

OBJECTIVE: The aim is to develop a new method for estimating cone of economy (CoE) using a force plate rather than traditional motion capture.

BACKGROUND: Currently, most spinal deformity surgeons rely on static radiographic parameters for alignment, balance, and outcomes data alongside patient-reported outcome measures. The CoE, the stable region of upright posture, can be objectively measured to determine the efficiency and balance of the spine. Motion capture technology is currently used to collect data to calculate CoE, but this requires expensive and complex equipment, which is a barrier to widespread adoption and clinical use of CoE measurements. Force plates, which measure pressure, are less expensive and can be used in a clinical setting.

METHODS: Motion capture and a force plate were used to quantify the CoE of 473 subjects (423 spinal surgical candidates; 50 healthy controls; 271 females; age: 58.60 ± 15.27; height: 1.69 ± 0.13; weight: 81.07 ± 20.91), and a linear multiple regression model was used to predict CoE using force plate data in a human motion laboratory setting. Patients were required to stand erect with feet together and eyes open in their self-perceived balanced and natural position for a full minute while measures of sway and center of pressure (CoP) were recorded.

RESULTS: The CoP variable regression model successfully predicted CoE measurements. The variables that were used to predict vertical CoE were CoP coronal sway, CoP sagittal sway, and CoP total sway in several combinations. The coefficient of determination for the head total sway model indicated a 87.0% correlation (F(3,469) = 1044.14, p < 0.001). The coefficient of determination for the head sagittal sway model indicated a 69.2% correlation (F(3,469) = 351.70, p < 0.001). The coefficient of determination for the head coronal sway model indicated a 85.2% correlation (F(3,469) = 899.27, p < 0001).

CONCLUSION: Cone of economy was estimated from force plate data using center of pressure with high correlation without the use of motion capture in healthy controls and a variety of spine patients. This could lower the entry burden for measurement of the CoE in patients, enabling widespread use. This would provide surgeons objective global balance data, along with Haddas' CoE classification system, that could assist with surgical decision-making and facilitate objective monitoring surgical outcomes.

PMID:33877453 | DOI:10.1007/s00586-021-06836-x

Association between burnout and wellness culture among emergency medicine providers

Richard Robinson, MD - Mon, 04/12/2021 - 05:00

Clin Exp Emerg Med. 2021 Mar;8(1):55-64. doi: 10.15441/ceem.20.074. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Burnout is a common occurrence among healthcare providers and has been associated with provider wellness culture. However, this association has not been extensively studied among emergency medicine (EM) providers. We aim to determine the association between EM provider burnout and their culture of wellness, and to elicit the independent wellness culture domains most predictive of burnout prevention.

METHODS: This was a multi-center observational study. We enrolled EM physicians and advanced practice providers from sixteen different emergency departments (EDs). Provider wellness culture and burnout surveys were performed. The wellness culture domains included in this study are personal/organizational value alignment, provider appreciation, leadership quality, self-controlled scheduling, peer support, and family support. Correlations between each wellness culture domain and burnout were analyzed by Pearson correlation co-efficiency, and their associations were measured by multivariate logistic regression with adjustments of other confounders.

RESULTS: A total of 242 ED provider surveys were entered for final analysis. The overall burnout rate was 54% (130/242). Moderate correlations were found between burnout and two wellness culture domains (value alignment: r=-0.43, P<0.001 and provider appreciation: r=-0.49, P<0.001). The adjusted odds ratio of provider appreciation associated with burnout was 0.44 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.77; P=0.004), adjusted odds ratio of family support was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.95; P=0.025).

CONCLUSION: ED providers have a relatively high burnout rate. Provider burnout might have certain associations with wellness culture domains. Provider appreciation and family support seem to play important roles in burnout protection.

PMID:33845524 | DOI:10.15441/ceem.20.074

Association between burnout and wellness culture among emergency medicine providers

James d'Etienne, MD - Mon, 04/12/2021 - 05:00

Clin Exp Emerg Med. 2021 Mar;8(1):55-64. doi: 10.15441/ceem.20.074. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Burnout is a common occurrence among healthcare providers and has been associated with provider wellness culture. However, this association has not been extensively studied among emergency medicine (EM) providers. We aim to determine the association between EM provider burnout and their culture of wellness, and to elicit the independent wellness culture domains most predictive of burnout prevention.

METHODS: This was a multi-center observational study. We enrolled EM physicians and advanced practice providers from sixteen different emergency departments (EDs). Provider wellness culture and burnout surveys were performed. The wellness culture domains included in this study are personal/organizational value alignment, provider appreciation, leadership quality, self-controlled scheduling, peer support, and family support. Correlations between each wellness culture domain and burnout were analyzed by Pearson correlation co-efficiency, and their associations were measured by multivariate logistic regression with adjustments of other confounders.

RESULTS: A total of 242 ED provider surveys were entered for final analysis. The overall burnout rate was 54% (130/242). Moderate correlations were found between burnout and two wellness culture domains (value alignment: r=-0.43, P<0.001 and provider appreciation: r=-0.49, P<0.001). The adjusted odds ratio of provider appreciation associated with burnout was 0.44 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.77; P=0.004), adjusted odds ratio of family support was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.95; P=0.025).

CONCLUSION: ED providers have a relatively high burnout rate. Provider burnout might have certain associations with wellness culture domains. Provider appreciation and family support seem to play important roles in burnout protection.

PMID:33845524 | DOI:10.15441/ceem.20.074

Association between burnout and wellness culture among emergency medicine providers

Hao Wang, MD - Mon, 04/12/2021 - 05:00

Clin Exp Emerg Med. 2021 Mar;8(1):55-64. doi: 10.15441/ceem.20.074. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Burnout is a common occurrence among healthcare providers and has been associated with provider wellness culture. However, this association has not been extensively studied among emergency medicine (EM) providers. We aim to determine the association between EM provider burnout and their culture of wellness, and to elicit the independent wellness culture domains most predictive of burnout prevention.

METHODS: This was a multi-center observational study. We enrolled EM physicians and advanced practice providers from sixteen different emergency departments (EDs). Provider wellness culture and burnout surveys were performed. The wellness culture domains included in this study are personal/organizational value alignment, provider appreciation, leadership quality, self-controlled scheduling, peer support, and family support. Correlations between each wellness culture domain and burnout were analyzed by Pearson correlation co-efficiency, and their associations were measured by multivariate logistic regression with adjustments of other confounders.

RESULTS: A total of 242 ED provider surveys were entered for final analysis. The overall burnout rate was 54% (130/242). Moderate correlations were found between burnout and two wellness culture domains (value alignment: r=-0.43, P<0.001 and provider appreciation: r=-0.49, P<0.001). The adjusted odds ratio of provider appreciation associated with burnout was 0.44 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.77; P=0.004), adjusted odds ratio of family support was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.95; P=0.025).

CONCLUSION: ED providers have a relatively high burnout rate. Provider burnout might have certain associations with wellness culture domains. Provider appreciation and family support seem to play important roles in burnout protection.

PMID:33845524 | DOI:10.15441/ceem.20.074

Association between burnout and wellness culture among emergency medicine providers

Clin Exp Emerg Med. 2021 Mar;8(1):55-64. doi: 10.15441/ceem.20.074. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Burnout is a common occurrence among healthcare providers and has been associated with provider wellness culture. However, this association has not been extensively studied among emergency medicine (EM) providers. We aim to determine the association between EM provider burnout and their culture of wellness, and to elicit the independent wellness culture domains most predictive of burnout prevention.

METHODS: This was a multi-center observational study. We enrolled EM physicians and advanced practice providers from sixteen different emergency departments (EDs). Provider wellness culture and burnout surveys were performed. The wellness culture domains included in this study are personal/organizational value alignment, provider appreciation, leadership quality, self-controlled scheduling, peer support, and family support. Correlations between each wellness culture domain and burnout were analyzed by Pearson correlation co-efficiency, and their associations were measured by multivariate logistic regression with adjustments of other confounders.

RESULTS: A total of 242 ED provider surveys were entered for final analysis. The overall burnout rate was 54% (130/242). Moderate correlations were found between burnout and two wellness culture domains (value alignment: r=-0.43, P<0.001 and provider appreciation: r=-0.49, P<0.001). The adjusted odds ratio of provider appreciation associated with burnout was 0.44 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.77; P=0.004), adjusted odds ratio of family support was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.95; P=0.025).

CONCLUSION: ED providers have a relatively high burnout rate. Provider burnout might have certain associations with wellness culture domains. Provider appreciation and family support seem to play important roles in burnout protection.

PMID:33845524 | DOI:10.15441/ceem.20.074

Prescription Opioid Use Among a Community Sample of Older and Younger Women

J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2021 Apr 7. doi: 10.1089/jwh.2020.8610. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Background: Women bear a heavier burden of the consequences related to prescription opioid use compared to their male counterparts; however, there has been little attention in the literature regarding prescription opioid use among women. We aimed to examine risk factors for prescription opioid use among women. Methods: Demographics, health status, and substance use data, including prescription opioid use, were collected through a community engagement program, HealthStreet, during a health needs assessment. Women older than 18 years were classified by opioid use: past 30-day, lifetime, but not past 30-day, or no lifetime prescription opioid use. Descriptive statistics and chi-square tests were calculated, and multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate adjusted odds ratios (aORs; confidence interval [CI]). Results: Among 5,549 women assessed, 15% reported past 30-day use and 41% reported lifetime use of prescription opioids. While prescription sedative use was the strongest risk factor for past 30-day use among younger women (aOR = 4.84; 95% CI, 3.59-6.51), past 6-month doctor visits was the strongest risk factor for past 30-day use among older women (aOR = 4.15; 95% CI, 2.62-6.60). Conclusions: We found higher rates of prescription opioid use in this community sample of women compared to national rates. Risk factors for recent prescription opioid use (past 30-day use) differed among older and younger women. Clinicians should be more vigilant about prescribing opioids as the medical profile for women may change through age, especially the co-prescribing of opioids and sedatives.

PMID:33826866 | DOI:10.1089/jwh.2020.8610

Suicide risk and perceived burden among adult medical inpatients

Cynthia Claassen, PhD - Sat, 04/03/2021 - 05:00

Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2021 Jan 20:S0163-8343(21)00011-6. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2021.01.007. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:33810884 | DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2021.01.007

Suicide risk and perceived burden among adult medical inpatients

Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2021 Jan 20:S0163-8343(21)00011-6. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2021.01.007. Online ahead of print.

NO ABSTRACT

PMID:33810884 | DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2021.01.007

Community Disparities in Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Care and Outcomes in Texas

Hao Wang, MD - Fri, 04/02/2021 - 05:00

Resuscitation. 2021 Mar 30:S0300-9572(21)00125-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.03.021. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Large racial and socioeconomic inequalities exist for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) care and outcomes. We sought to characterize racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in OHCA care and outcomes in Texas.

METHODS: We analyzed 2014-2018 Texas-Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) data. Using census tracts, we defined race/ethnicity neighborhoods based on majority race/ethnicity composition: non-Hispanic/Latino white, non-Hispanic/Latino black, and Hispanic/Latino. We also stratified neighborhoods into socioeconomic categories: above and below the median for household income, employment rate, and high school graduation. We defined outcomes as bystander CPR rates, public bystander AED use, and survival to hospital discharge. Using mixed models, we analyzed the associations between outcomes and neighborhood (1) racial/ethnic categories and (2) socioeconomic categories.

RESULTS: We included data on 18,488 OHCAs. Relative to white neighborhoods, black neighborhoods had lower rates of AED use (OR 0.3, CI 0.2-0.4), and Hispanic/Latino neighborhoods had lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.7, CI 0.6-0.8), AED use (OR 0.4, CI 0.3-0.6), and survival (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.8). Lower income was associated with a lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.8), AED use (OR 0.5, CI 0.4-0.8), and survival (OR 0.9, CI 0.9-0.98). Lower high school graduation was associated with a lower rate of bystander CPR (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.9) and AED use (OR 0.6, CI 0.4-0.9). Higher unemployment was associated with lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.9, CI 0.8-0.94) and AED use (OR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.99).

CONCLUSION: Minority and poor neighborhoods in Texas experience large and unacceptable disparities in OHCA bystander response and outcomes.

PMID:33798624 | DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.03.021

Community Disparities in Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Care and Outcomes in Texas

Veer Vithalani, MD - Fri, 04/02/2021 - 05:00

Resuscitation. 2021 Mar 30:S0300-9572(21)00125-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.03.021. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Large racial and socioeconomic inequalities exist for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) care and outcomes. We sought to characterize racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in OHCA care and outcomes in Texas.

METHODS: We analyzed 2014-2018 Texas-Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) data. Using census tracts, we defined race/ethnicity neighborhoods based on majority race/ethnicity composition: non-Hispanic/Latino white, non-Hispanic/Latino black, and Hispanic/Latino. We also stratified neighborhoods into socioeconomic categories: above and below the median for household income, employment rate, and high school graduation. We defined outcomes as bystander CPR rates, public bystander AED use, and survival to hospital discharge. Using mixed models, we analyzed the associations between outcomes and neighborhood (1) racial/ethnic categories and (2) socioeconomic categories.

RESULTS: We included data on 18,488 OHCAs. Relative to white neighborhoods, black neighborhoods had lower rates of AED use (OR 0.3, CI 0.2-0.4), and Hispanic/Latino neighborhoods had lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.7, CI 0.6-0.8), AED use (OR 0.4, CI 0.3-0.6), and survival (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.8). Lower income was associated with a lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.8), AED use (OR 0.5, CI 0.4-0.8), and survival (OR 0.9, CI 0.9-0.98). Lower high school graduation was associated with a lower rate of bystander CPR (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.9) and AED use (OR 0.6, CI 0.4-0.9). Higher unemployment was associated with lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.9, CI 0.8-0.94) and AED use (OR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.99).

CONCLUSION: Minority and poor neighborhoods in Texas experience large and unacceptable disparities in OHCA bystander response and outcomes.

PMID:33798624 | DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.03.021

Community Disparities in Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Care and Outcomes in Texas

Resuscitation. 2021 Mar 30:S0300-9572(21)00125-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.03.021. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Large racial and socioeconomic inequalities exist for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) care and outcomes. We sought to characterize racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in OHCA care and outcomes in Texas.

METHODS: We analyzed 2014-2018 Texas-Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) data. Using census tracts, we defined race/ethnicity neighborhoods based on majority race/ethnicity composition: non-Hispanic/Latino white, non-Hispanic/Latino black, and Hispanic/Latino. We also stratified neighborhoods into socioeconomic categories: above and below the median for household income, employment rate, and high school graduation. We defined outcomes as bystander CPR rates, public bystander AED use, and survival to hospital discharge. Using mixed models, we analyzed the associations between outcomes and neighborhood (1) racial/ethnic categories and (2) socioeconomic categories.

RESULTS: We included data on 18,488 OHCAs. Relative to white neighborhoods, black neighborhoods had lower rates of AED use (OR 0.3, CI 0.2-0.4), and Hispanic/Latino neighborhoods had lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.7, CI 0.6-0.8), AED use (OR 0.4, CI 0.3-0.6), and survival (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.8). Lower income was associated with a lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.8), AED use (OR 0.5, CI 0.4-0.8), and survival (OR 0.9, CI 0.9-0.98). Lower high school graduation was associated with a lower rate of bystander CPR (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.9) and AED use (OR 0.6, CI 0.4-0.9). Higher unemployment was associated with lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.9, CI 0.8-0.94) and AED use (OR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.99).

CONCLUSION: Minority and poor neighborhoods in Texas experience large and unacceptable disparities in OHCA bystander response and outcomes.

PMID:33798624 | DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.03.021

LACTATE AS A MEDIATOR OF PREHOSPITAL PLASMA MORTALITY REDUCTION IN HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK

J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2021 Mar 12. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000003173. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prehospital plasma transfusion in trauma reduces mortality. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Reduction in shock severity may play a role. Lactate correlates with physiologic shock severity and mortality after injury. Our objective was to determine if prehospital plasma reduces lactate, and if this contributes to the mortality benefit of plasma.

METHODS: Patients in the Prehospital Air Medical Plasma trial in the upper quartile of injury severity (ISS>30) were included to capture severe shock. Trial patients were randomized to prehospital plasma or standard care resuscitation (crystalloid +/- PRBC). Regression determined the associations between admission lactate, 30-day mortality, and plasma while adjusting for demographics, prehospital crystalloid, time, mechanism, and injury characteristics. Causal mediation analysis determined what proportion of the effect of plasma on mortality is mediated by lactate reduction.

RESULTS: 125 patients were included. The plasma group had a lower adjusted admission lactate than standard of care group (coeff -1.64; 95%CI -2.96, -0.31, p=0.02). Plasma was associated with lower odds of 30-day mortality (OR 0.27; 95%CI 0.08-0.90, p=0.03). When adding lactate to this model, the effect of plasma on 30-day mortality was no longer significant (OR 0.36; 95%CI 0.07-1.88, p=0.23), while lactate was associated with mortality (OR 1.74 per 1mmol/L increase; 95%CI 1.10-2.73, p=0.01). Causal mediation demonstrated 35.1% of the total effect of plasma on 30-day mortality was mediated by the reduction in lactate among plasma patients.

CONCLUSION: Prehospital plasma is associated with reduced 30-day mortality and lactate in severely injured patients. Over one-third of the effect of plasma on mortality is mediated by a reduction in lactate. Thus, reducing the severity of hemorrhagic shock appears to be one mechanism of prehospital plasma benefit. Further study should elucidate other mechanisms and if a dose response exists.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: II, therapeutic.

PMID:33797485 | DOI:10.1097/TA.0000000000003173

Community Variations in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Care and Outcomes in Texas

Hao Wang, MD - Mon, 03/29/2021 - 05:00

Prehosp Emerg Care. 2021 Mar 29:1-10. doi: 10.1080/10903127.2021.1907007. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BackgroundLarge and unacceptable variation exists in cardiac resuscitation care and outcomes across communities. Texas is the second most populous state in the US with wide variation in community and emergency response infrastructure. We utilized the Texas-CARES registry to perform the first Texas state analysis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Texas, evaluating for variations in incidence, care, and outcomes.MethodsWe analyzed the Texas-CARES registry, including all adult, non-traumatic OHCAs from 1/1/2014 through 12/31/2018. We analyzed the incidence and characteristics of OHCA care and outcome, overall and stratified by community. Utilizing mixed models accounting for clustering by community, we characterized variations in bystander CPR, bystander AED in public locations, and survival to hospital discharge across communities, adjusting for age, gender, race, location of arrest, and rate of witnessed arrest (bystander and 911 responder witnessed).ResultsThere were a total of 26,847 (5,369 per year) OHCAs from 13 communities; median 2,762 per community (IQR 444-2,767, min 136, max 9161). Texas care and outcome characteristics were: bystander CPR (43.3%), bystander AED use (9.1%), survival to discharge (9.1%), and survival with good neurological outcomes (4.0%). Bystander CPR rate ranged from 19.2% to 55.0%, and there were five communities above and five below the adjusted 95% confidence interval. Bystander AED use ranged from 0% to 19.5%, and there was one community below the adjusted 95% confidence interval. Survival to hospital discharge ranged from 6.7% to 14.0%, and there were three communities above and two below the adjusted 95% confidence interval.ConclusionWhile overall OHCA care and outcomes were similar in Texas compared to national averages, bystander CPR, bystander AED use, and survival varied widely across communities in Texas. These variations signal opportunities to improve OHCA care and outcomes in Texas.

PMID:33779479 | DOI:10.1080/10903127.2021.1907007

Community Variations in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Care and Outcomes in Texas

Veer Vithalani, MD - Mon, 03/29/2021 - 05:00

Prehosp Emerg Care. 2021 Mar 29:1-10. doi: 10.1080/10903127.2021.1907007. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BackgroundLarge and unacceptable variation exists in cardiac resuscitation care and outcomes across communities. Texas is the second most populous state in the US with wide variation in community and emergency response infrastructure. We utilized the Texas-CARES registry to perform the first Texas state analysis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Texas, evaluating for variations in incidence, care, and outcomes.MethodsWe analyzed the Texas-CARES registry, including all adult, non-traumatic OHCAs from 1/1/2014 through 12/31/2018. We analyzed the incidence and characteristics of OHCA care and outcome, overall and stratified by community. Utilizing mixed models accounting for clustering by community, we characterized variations in bystander CPR, bystander AED in public locations, and survival to hospital discharge across communities, adjusting for age, gender, race, location of arrest, and rate of witnessed arrest (bystander and 911 responder witnessed).ResultsThere were a total of 26,847 (5,369 per year) OHCAs from 13 communities; median 2,762 per community (IQR 444-2,767, min 136, max 9161). Texas care and outcome characteristics were: bystander CPR (43.3%), bystander AED use (9.1%), survival to discharge (9.1%), and survival with good neurological outcomes (4.0%). Bystander CPR rate ranged from 19.2% to 55.0%, and there were five communities above and five below the adjusted 95% confidence interval. Bystander AED use ranged from 0% to 19.5%, and there was one community below the adjusted 95% confidence interval. Survival to hospital discharge ranged from 6.7% to 14.0%, and there were three communities above and two below the adjusted 95% confidence interval.ConclusionWhile overall OHCA care and outcomes were similar in Texas compared to national averages, bystander CPR, bystander AED use, and survival varied widely across communities in Texas. These variations signal opportunities to improve OHCA care and outcomes in Texas.

PMID:33779479 | DOI:10.1080/10903127.2021.1907007

Community Variations in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Care and Outcomes in Texas

Prehosp Emerg Care. 2021 Mar 29:1-10. doi: 10.1080/10903127.2021.1907007. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BackgroundLarge and unacceptable variation exists in cardiac resuscitation care and outcomes across communities. Texas is the second most populous state in the US with wide variation in community and emergency response infrastructure. We utilized the Texas-CARES registry to perform the first Texas state analysis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Texas, evaluating for variations in incidence, care, and outcomes.MethodsWe analyzed the Texas-CARES registry, including all adult, non-traumatic OHCAs from 1/1/2014 through 12/31/2018. We analyzed the incidence and characteristics of OHCA care and outcome, overall and stratified by community. Utilizing mixed models accounting for clustering by community, we characterized variations in bystander CPR, bystander AED in public locations, and survival to hospital discharge across communities, adjusting for age, gender, race, location of arrest, and rate of witnessed arrest (bystander and 911 responder witnessed).ResultsThere were a total of 26,847 (5,369 per year) OHCAs from 13 communities; median 2,762 per community (IQR 444-2,767, min 136, max 9161). Texas care and outcome characteristics were: bystander CPR (43.3%), bystander AED use (9.1%), survival to discharge (9.1%), and survival with good neurological outcomes (4.0%). Bystander CPR rate ranged from 19.2% to 55.0%, and there were five communities above and five below the adjusted 95% confidence interval. Bystander AED use ranged from 0% to 19.5%, and there was one community below the adjusted 95% confidence interval. Survival to hospital discharge ranged from 6.7% to 14.0%, and there were three communities above and two below the adjusted 95% confidence interval.ConclusionWhile overall OHCA care and outcomes were similar in Texas compared to national averages, bystander CPR, bystander AED use, and survival varied widely across communities in Texas. These variations signal opportunities to improve OHCA care and outcomes in Texas.

PMID:33779479 | DOI:10.1080/10903127.2021.1907007

Neurocognitive effects associated with proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitor use: a narrative review

Ther Adv Drug Saf. 2021 Mar 8;12:2042098620959271. doi: 10.1177/2042098620959271. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

Neurocognitive adverse events have been observed with the widespread use of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors or "statins," which reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels and subsequently cardiovascular risk. The United States Food and Drug Association directed manufacturers of proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors to monitor for neurocognitive adverse events due to their potent effects on LDL-C reduction, which is a proposed mechanism for neuronal cell dysfunction. Other proposed mechanisms for PCSK9 inhibitor-associated neurocognitive adverse events include N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor modulation, dysregulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and patient-specific risk factors for cognitive impairment. The purpose of this narrative review article is to describe the proposed mechanisms, incidence of neurocognitive adverse events from phase II and III trials for PCSK9 inhibitors, neurocognitive assessments utilized in clinical trials, and clinical implications. Given the increasing prevalence of PCSK9 inhibitor use and the neurocognitive adverse events observed with prior lipid-lowering therapies, clinicians should be aware of the risks associated with PCSK9 inhibitors, especially when therapy is indicated for patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. Overall, the incidence of PCSK9 inhibitor-associated neurocognitive appears to be uncommon. However, additional prospective studies evaluating cognitive impairment may be beneficial to determine the long-term safety of these agents.

PMID:33763200 | PMC:PMC7944525 | DOI:10.1177/2042098620959271

What do we mean, 'necessary'?-Achieving balance and recognizing limits in primary healthcare and universal healthcare

Richard Young, MD - Wed, 03/24/2021 - 05:00

J Eval Clin Pract. 2021 Mar 24. doi: 10.1111/jep.13545. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Sturmberg and Martin make a compelling case for primary healthcare (PHC) to be the foundation for universal healthcare (UHC). They state that a system should have necessary resources, but what does that mean? Basic economic theory postulates that all resources are limited and that choices must be made between competing options. For a UHC system to be successful and resilient, it must accept that healthcare is a limited right, there will always be inequalities in healthcare delivery and outcomes, primary care physicians and their teams must accept the added burden of balancing the needs of their personal patients with the greater system, leaders and observers of healthcare systems must accept that moderation and balance will often be the best outcome even though they are difficult to measure, and leaders of healthcare systems must accept that they cannot control the system, but contribute by providing context and limited constraints, information, and resources. A deeper understanding of complex adaptive systems will best guide these necessary changes.

PMID:33760312 | DOI:10.1111/jep.13545

What do we mean, 'necessary'?-Achieving balance and recognizing limits in primary healthcare and universal healthcare

J Eval Clin Pract. 2021 Mar 24. doi: 10.1111/jep.13545. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Sturmberg and Martin make a compelling case for primary healthcare (PHC) to be the foundation for universal healthcare (UHC). They state that a system should have necessary resources, but what does that mean? Basic economic theory postulates that all resources are limited and that choices must be made between competing options. For a UHC system to be successful and resilient, it must accept that healthcare is a limited right, there will always be inequalities in healthcare delivery and outcomes, primary care physicians and their teams must accept the added burden of balancing the needs of their personal patients with the greater system, leaders and observers of healthcare systems must accept that moderation and balance will often be the best outcome even though they are difficult to measure, and leaders of healthcare systems must accept that they cannot control the system, but contribute by providing context and limited constraints, information, and resources. A deeper understanding of complex adaptive systems will best guide these necessary changes.

PMID:33760312 | DOI:10.1111/jep.13545

Plantar Fasciitis/Fasciosis

Travis Motley, DPM - Mon, 03/22/2021 - 05:00

Clin Podiatr Med Surg. 2021 Apr;38(2):193-200. doi: 10.1016/j.cpm.2020.12.005. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

ABSTRACT

Many randomized controlled trials demonstrate the effectiveness of conservative treatment of plantar fasciitis. Patients with acute plantar fasciitis generally respond to treatment more rapidly and more predictably than patients with chronic plantar fasciitis. If conservative treatment fails, endoscopic plantar fasciotomy offers patients a more prompt return to activity compared with open procedures.

PMID:33745651 | DOI:10.1016/j.cpm.2020.12.005

Financial constraints on genetic counseling and further risk-management decisions among U.S. women at elevated breast cancer risk

J Genet Couns. 2021 Mar 21. doi: 10.1002/jgc4.1413. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Clinical guidelines recommend that women at high risk of breast cancer should consider various risk-management options, which remain widely underutilized. We conducted semi-structured, qualitative interviews with 50 high-risk women to understand how financial constraints affect use of genetic counseling, genetic testing, and further risk-management decisions. Inductive analyses revealed three categories of health-related financial constraint: (a) lack of insurance, (b) underinsurance, and (c) other financial constraints (e.g., medical debt, raising children, managing comorbidities). Various breast cancer risk-management actions were limited by these financial constraints, including genetic counseling, genetic testing, enhanced screening, and prophylactic surgeries. Women's narratives also identified complex relationships between financial constraint and perceptions of healthcare providers and insurance companies, particularly as related to bias, price transparency, and potential genetic discrimination. Results from this study have implications for further research and expansion of genetic counseling services delivery to more economically and racially diverse women.

PMID:33749063 | DOI:10.1002/jgc4.1413

Pages