Search this website

Feed aggregator

Lung Ultrasound for COVID-19 Evaluation in the Emergency Department: Is It Feasible?

Lung Ultrasound for COVID-19 Evaluation in the Emergency Department: Is It Feasible?

Ann Emerg Med. 2020 Oct;76(4):552-553

Authors: Wolfshohl J, Shedd A, Chou EH, d'Etienne JP

PMID: 33012385 [PubMed - in process]

Study protocol for a multicentre implementation trial of monotherapy anticoagulation to expedite home treatment of patients diagnosed with venous thromboembolism in the emergency department.

Study protocol for a multicentre implementation trial of monotherapy anticoagulation to expedite home treatment of patients diagnosed with venous thromboembolism in the emergency department.

BMJ Open. 2020 Oct 01;10(10):e038078

Authors: Kline J, Adler D, Alanis N, Bledsoe J, Courtney D, D'Etienne J, B Diercks D, Garrett J, Jones AE, MacKenzie D, Madsen T, Matuskowitz A, Mumma B, Nordenholz K, Pagenhardt J, Runyon M, Stubblefield W, Willoughby C

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: In the USA, many emergency departments (EDs) have established protocols to treat patients with newly diagnosed deep vein thrombosis (DVT) as outpatients. Similar treatment of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) has been proposed, but no large-scale study has been published to evaluate a comprehensive, integrated protocol that employs monotherapy anticoagulation to treat patients diagnosed with DVT and PE in the ED.
METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This protocol describes the implementation of the Monotherapy Anticoagulation To expedite Home treatment of Venous ThromboEmbolism (MATH-VTE) study at 33 hospitals in the USA. The study was designed and executed to meet the requirements for the Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies guideline. The study was funded by investigator-initiated awards from industry, with Indiana University as the sponsor. The study principal investigator and study associates travelled to each site to provide on-site training. The protocol identically screens patients with both DVT or PE to determine low risk of death using either the modified Hestia criteria or physician judgement plus a negative result from the simplified PE severity index. Patients must be discharged from the ED within 24 hours of triage and treated with either apixaban or rivaroxaban. Overall effectiveness is based upon the primary efficacy and safety outcomes of recurrent VTE and bleeding requiring hospitalisation respectively. Target enrolment of 1300 patients was estimated with efficacy success defined as the upper limit of the 95% CI for the 30-day frequency of VTE recurrence below 2.0%. Thirty-three hospitals in 17 states were initiated in 2016-2017.
ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: All sites had Institutional Review Board approval. We anticipate completion of enrolment in June 2020; study data will be available after peer-reviewed publication. MATH-VTE will provide information from a large multicentre sample of US patients about the efficacy and safety of home treatment of VTE with monotherapy anticoagulation.

PMID: 33004396 [PubMed - in process]

Building RAFT: Trafficking Screening Tool Derivation and Validation Methods.

Related Articles

Building RAFT: Trafficking Screening Tool Derivation and Validation Methods.

Acad Emerg Med. 2020 04;27(4):297-304

Authors: Chisolm-Straker M, Singer E, Rothman EF, Clesca C, Strong D, Loo GT, Sze JJ, d'Etienne JP, Alanis N, Richardson LD

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Labor and sex trafficking have long impacted the patients who seek care in emergency departments (ED) across the United States. Increasing social and legislative pressures have led to multiple calls for screening for trafficking in the clinical care setting, but adoption of unvalidated screening tools for trafficking recognition is unwise for individual patient care and population-level data. Development of a valid screening tool for a social malady that is largely "invisible" to most clinicians requires significant investments. Valid screening tool development is largely a poorly understood process in the antitrafficking field and among clinicians who would use the tools.
METHODS: The authors describe the study design and procedures for reliable data collection and analysis in the development of RAFT (Rapid Appraisal for Trafficking). In a five-ED, randomized, prospective study, RAFT will be derived and validated as a labor and sex trafficking screening tool for use among adult ED patients. Using a novel method of ED patient-participant randomization, intensively trained data collectors use qualitative data to assess subjects for a lifetime experience of human trafficking.
CONCLUSION: Study methodology transparency encourages investigative rigor and integrity and will allow other sites to reproduce and externally validate this study's findings.

PMID: 31725176 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Biomechanical Study of Patellar Component Fixation with Varying Degrees of Bone Loss.

Russell Wagner, MD - Wed, 09/30/2020 - 00:15
Related Articles

Biomechanical Study of Patellar Component Fixation with Varying Degrees of Bone Loss.

J Arthroplasty. 2020 Aug 25;:

Authors: Beck CM, Nwannunu BI, Teigen KJ, Wagner RA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The decision as to whether or not to resurface the patella in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is affected by the amount of patellar bone stock remaining; however, the impact of the cancellous bone status on patellar component fixation has not been studied. Therefore, we conducted a biomechanical study of patellar component fixation with varying degrees of cancellous bone loss.
METHODS: Sixty pairs of cadaveric patellae were randomly assigned between 3 groups and prepared in similar manner to a TKA with the standard 3-hole configuration. A control patella and an experimental patella were designated in each pair. To simulate bone loss in the experimental patellae, 1, 2, and 3 of the standard drill holes were uniformly enlarged to 12 mm in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively. Afterward, an all-polyethylene patellar component was cemented to each patella, as done intraoperatively. Patellar components were then sheared off using a materials testing system. The resulting mean offset yield force was analyzed within each group using paired t-tests.
RESULTS: The mean offset yield force for the control patellae was greater than the experimental patellae in group 1. In groups 2 and 3, the experimental patellae produced a greater mean offset yield force than the control patellae. Comparison within each group did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference.
CONCLUSION: Bone loss with enlargement of the patellar fixation holes, as is frequently seen in revision TKA, with holes up to 12 mm, does not significantly decrease patellar component fixation shear strength in this biomechanical cadaveric study.

PMID: 32978021 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Biomechanical Study of Patellar Component Fixation with Varying Degrees of Bone Loss.

Related Articles

Biomechanical Study of Patellar Component Fixation with Varying Degrees of Bone Loss.

J Arthroplasty. 2020 Aug 25;:

Authors: Beck CM, Nwannunu BI, Teigen KJ, Wagner RA

Abstract
BACKGROUND: The decision as to whether or not to resurface the patella in revision total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is affected by the amount of patellar bone stock remaining; however, the impact of the cancellous bone status on patellar component fixation has not been studied. Therefore, we conducted a biomechanical study of patellar component fixation with varying degrees of cancellous bone loss.
METHODS: Sixty pairs of cadaveric patellae were randomly assigned between 3 groups and prepared in similar manner to a TKA with the standard 3-hole configuration. A control patella and an experimental patella were designated in each pair. To simulate bone loss in the experimental patellae, 1, 2, and 3 of the standard drill holes were uniformly enlarged to 12 mm in group 1, group 2, and group 3, respectively. Afterward, an all-polyethylene patellar component was cemented to each patella, as done intraoperatively. Patellar components were then sheared off using a materials testing system. The resulting mean offset yield force was analyzed within each group using paired t-tests.
RESULTS: The mean offset yield force for the control patellae was greater than the experimental patellae in group 1. In groups 2 and 3, the experimental patellae produced a greater mean offset yield force than the control patellae. Comparison within each group did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference.
CONCLUSION: Bone loss with enlargement of the patellar fixation holes, as is frequently seen in revision TKA, with holes up to 12 mm, does not significantly decrease patellar component fixation shear strength in this biomechanical cadaveric study.

PMID: 32978021 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Is it time to incorporate physics into the Dental Admissions Test?

Related Articles

Is it time to incorporate physics into the Dental Admissions Test?

J Dent Educ. 2020 Sep 21;:

Authors: Tandon R

Abstract
Although physics is a pre-requisite for dental students prior to matriculation it is not tested on the Dental Admissions Test (DAT). The concepts of physics are found throughout the dental profession, and by testing it on the DAT dental students will be better equipped to relate physics to their field and help advance it. The purpose of this paper is to make the argument for why it should be tested, as well as eliminating some of the superfluous topics on the DAT (ecology, environmental sciences, and plant physiology). This paper will focus on a few of concepts already taught in dentistry, and explore how physics principles apply to several of them. We want to emphasize the importance of physics and how testing even the most basic concepts will help prepare students to "think outside the box". Classical physics, specifically Newtonian Mechanics, has several applications in nearly all areas of dentistry: restorative, orthodontics, prosthodontics, and surgery. The testing of basic formulas studied in the pre-requisite physics classes will help ease the transition from college to dental school. Modern physics, namely Quantum Mechanics, also plays a significant role in current dental diagnostics and therapeutics. Additionally, with the development of the Integrated National Board Dental Examination (INBDE) as a replacement for the old NBDE part 1 and 2, there are topics tested that specifically focus on physics: Foundational Knowledge Areas 2 and 3. Thus, it is critical that the student dentist be familiar with these concepts. It is important to note that scientific changes occurring in the health sciences almost mandates students be familiar with concepts rooted in physics. It is then proposed that physics be incorporated into the exam, either with the natural sciences or within the quantitative reasoning section, in addition to eliminating topics not relevant to the dental field.

PMID: 32959369 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Military experience in the management of pelvic fractures from OIF/OEF.

Related Articles

Military experience in the management of pelvic fractures from OIF/OEF.

BMJ Mil Health. 2020 Sep 16;:

Authors: Parker W, Despain RW, Bailey J, Elster E, Rodriguez CJ, Bradley M

Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Pelvic fractures are a common occurrence in combat trauma. However, the fracture pattern and management within the most recent conflicts, i.e. Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), have yet to be described, especially in the context of dismounted complex blast injury. Our goal was to identify the incidence, patterns of injury and management of pelvic fractures.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review on all combat-injured patients who arrived at our military treatment hospital between November 2010 and November 2012. Basic demographics, Young-Burgess fracture pattern classification and treatment strategies were examined.
RESULTS: Of 562 patients identified within the study time period, 14% (81 of 562) were found to have a pelvic fracture. The vast majority (85%) were secondary to an improvised explosive device. The average Injury Severity Score for patients with pelvic fracture was 31±12 and 70% were classified as open. Of the 228 patients with any traumatic lower extremity amputation, 23% had pelvic fractures, while 30% of patients with bilateral above-knee amputations also sustained a pelvic fracture. The most common Young-Burgess injury pattern was anteroposterior compression (APC) (57%), followed by lateral compression (LC) (36%) and vertical shear (VS) (7%). Only 2% (nine of 562) of all patients were recorded as having pelvic binders placed in the prehospital setting. 49% of patients with pelvic fracture required procedural therapy, the most common of which was placement of a pelvic external fixator (34 of 40; 85%), followed by preperitoneal packing (16 of 40; 40%) and angioembolisation (three of 40; 0.75%). 17 (42.5%) patients required combinations of these three treatment modalities, the majority of which were a combination of external fixator and preperitoneal packing. The likelihood to need procedural therapy was impacted by injury pattern, as 72% of patients with an APC injury, 100% of patients with a VS injury and 25% of patients with an LC injury required procedural therapy.
CONCLUSIONS: Pelvic fractures were common concomitant injuries following blast-induced traumatic lower extremity amputations. APC was the most common pelvic fracture pattern identified. While procedural therapy was frequent, the majority of patients underwent conservative therapy. However, placement of an external fixator was the most frequently used modality. Considering angioembolisation was used in less than 1% of cases, in the forward deployed military environment, management should focus on pelvic external fixation±preperitoneal packing. Finally, prehospital pelvic binder application may be an area for further process improvement.

PMID: 32938710 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

45-year-old man • fever • generalized rash • recent history of calcaneal osteomyelitis • Dx?

Related Articles

45-year-old man • fever • generalized rash • recent history of calcaneal osteomyelitis • Dx?

J Fam Pract. 2020 Sep;69(7):353-356

Authors: Cobb WJ

Abstract
► Fever ► Generalized rash ► Recent history of calcaneal osteomyelitis.

PMID: 32936844 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Good Trouble.

Related Articles

Good Trouble.

Fam Med. 2020 Sep;52(8):607-608

Authors: Elliott TC

PMID: 32931015 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effect of Out-of-Hospital Tranexamic Acid vs Placebo on 6-Month Functional Neurologic Outcomes in Patients With Moderate or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

Neal Richmond, MD - Tue, 09/15/2020 - 21:21
Related Articles

Effect of Out-of-Hospital Tranexamic Acid vs Placebo on 6-Month Functional Neurologic Outcomes in Patients With Moderate or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

JAMA. 2020 Sep 08;324(10):961-974

Authors: Rowell SE, Meier EN, McKnight B, Kannas D, May S, Sheehan K, Bulger EM, Idris AH, Christenson J, Morrison LJ, Frascone RJ, Bosarge PL, Colella MR, Johannigman J, Cotton BA, Callum J, McMullan J, Dries DJ, Tibbs B, Richmond NJ, Weisfeldt ML, Tallon JM, Garrett JS, Zielinski MD, Aufderheide TP, Gandhi RR, Schlamp R, Robinson BRH, Jui J, Klein L, Rizoli S, Gamber M, Fleming M, Hwang J, Vincent LE, Williams C, Hendrickson A, Simonson R, Klotz P, Sopko G, Witham W, Ferrara M, Schreiber MA

Abstract
Importance: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability due to trauma. Early administration of tranexamic acid may benefit patients with TBI.
Objective: To determine whether tranexamic acid treatment initiated in the out-of-hospital setting within 2 hours of injury improves neurologic outcome in patients with moderate or severe TBI.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial at 20 trauma centers and 39 emergency medical services agencies in the US and Canada from May 2015 to November 2017. Eligible participants (N = 1280) included out-of-hospital patients with TBI aged 15 years or older with Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or less and systolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher.
Interventions: Three interventions were evaluated, with treatment initiated within 2 hours of TBI: out-of-hospital tranexamic acid (1 g) bolus and in-hospital tranexamic acid (1 g) 8-hour infusion (bolus maintenance group; n = 312), out-of-hospital tranexamic acid (2 g) bolus and in-hospital placebo 8-hour infusion (bolus only group; n = 345), and out-of-hospital placebo bolus and in-hospital placebo 8-hour infusion (placebo group; n = 309).
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was favorable neurologic function at 6 months (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended score >4 [moderate disability or good recovery]) in the combined tranexamic acid group vs the placebo group. Asymmetric significance thresholds were set at 0.1 for benefit and 0.025 for harm. There were 18 secondary end points, of which 5 are reported in this article: 28-day mortality, 6-month Disability Rating Scale score (range, 0 [no disability] to 30 [death]), progression of intracranial hemorrhage, incidence of seizures, and incidence of thromboembolic events.
Results: Among 1063 participants, a study drug was not administered to 96 randomized participants and 1 participant was excluded, resulting in 966 participants in the analysis population (mean age, 42 years; 255 [74%] male participants; mean Glasgow Coma Scale score, 8). Of these participants, 819 (84.8%) were available for primary outcome analysis at 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome occurred in 65% of patients in the tranexamic acid groups vs 62% in the placebo group (difference, 3.5%; [90% 1-sided confidence limit for benefit, -0.9%]; P = .16; [97.5% 1-sided confidence limit for harm, 10.2%]; P = .84). There was no statistically significant difference in 28-day mortality between the tranexamic acid groups vs the placebo group (14% vs 17%; difference, -2.9% [95% CI, -7.9% to 2.1%]; P = .26), 6-month Disability Rating Scale score (6.8 vs 7.6; difference, -0.9 [95% CI, -2.5 to 0.7]; P = .29), or progression of intracranial hemorrhage (16% vs 20%; difference, -5.4% [95% CI, -12.8% to 2.1%]; P = .16).
Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with moderate to severe TBI, out-of-hospital tranexamic acid administration within 2 hours of injury compared with placebo did not significantly improve 6-month neurologic outcome as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01990768.

PMID: 32897344 [PubMed - in process]

The North Karelia Project: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Finland Through Population-Based Lifestyle Interventions.

The North Karelia Project: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Finland Through Population-Based Lifestyle Interventions.

Am J Lifestyle Med. 2020 Sep-Oct;14(5):495-499

Authors: Puska P, Jaini P

Abstract
The North Karelia Project was started in 1972 as a response to the high cardiovascular mortality among men in North Karelia, Finland's easternmost province. Prevalent cardiovascular disease risk factors in the province included elevated serum cholesterol, hypertension, and smoking. Through a sociobehavioral framework utilizing community-based interventions and national-level policy changes and legislation, the project targeted lifestyle changes as a means to alleviate cardiovascular disease risk factors. Diet recommendations included minimizing the use of saturated fats and decreasing salt intake. Another target of the project was to reduce the prevalence of smoking. As a result of the lifestyle interventions that continued beyond the initial 5 years of the project and then expanded to all of Finland, there were significant reductions in serum cholesterol levels, hypertension, smoking prevalence, and cardiovascular disease mortality. The North Karelia Project demonstrates that successful population-based lifestyle interventions serve as a sustainable public health solution to the growing chronic disease burden.

PMID: 32922234 [PubMed]

Effect of Out-of-Hospital Tranexamic Acid vs Placebo on 6-Month Functional Neurologic Outcomes in Patients With Moderate or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

Related Articles

Effect of Out-of-Hospital Tranexamic Acid vs Placebo on 6-Month Functional Neurologic Outcomes in Patients With Moderate or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

JAMA. 2020 Sep 08;324(10):961-974

Authors: Rowell SE, Meier EN, McKnight B, Kannas D, May S, Sheehan K, Bulger EM, Idris AH, Christenson J, Morrison LJ, Frascone RJ, Bosarge PL, Colella MR, Johannigman J, Cotton BA, Callum J, McMullan J, Dries DJ, Tibbs B, Richmond NJ, Weisfeldt ML, Tallon JM, Garrett JS, Zielinski MD, Aufderheide TP, Gandhi RR, Schlamp R, Robinson BRH, Jui J, Klein L, Rizoli S, Gamber M, Fleming M, Hwang J, Vincent LE, Williams C, Hendrickson A, Simonson R, Klotz P, Sopko G, Witham W, Ferrara M, Schreiber MA

Abstract
Importance: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability due to trauma. Early administration of tranexamic acid may benefit patients with TBI.
Objective: To determine whether tranexamic acid treatment initiated in the out-of-hospital setting within 2 hours of injury improves neurologic outcome in patients with moderate or severe TBI.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial at 20 trauma centers and 39 emergency medical services agencies in the US and Canada from May 2015 to November 2017. Eligible participants (N = 1280) included out-of-hospital patients with TBI aged 15 years or older with Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or less and systolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher.
Interventions: Three interventions were evaluated, with treatment initiated within 2 hours of TBI: out-of-hospital tranexamic acid (1 g) bolus and in-hospital tranexamic acid (1 g) 8-hour infusion (bolus maintenance group; n = 312), out-of-hospital tranexamic acid (2 g) bolus and in-hospital placebo 8-hour infusion (bolus only group; n = 345), and out-of-hospital placebo bolus and in-hospital placebo 8-hour infusion (placebo group; n = 309).
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was favorable neurologic function at 6 months (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended score >4 [moderate disability or good recovery]) in the combined tranexamic acid group vs the placebo group. Asymmetric significance thresholds were set at 0.1 for benefit and 0.025 for harm. There were 18 secondary end points, of which 5 are reported in this article: 28-day mortality, 6-month Disability Rating Scale score (range, 0 [no disability] to 30 [death]), progression of intracranial hemorrhage, incidence of seizures, and incidence of thromboembolic events.
Results: Among 1063 participants, a study drug was not administered to 96 randomized participants and 1 participant was excluded, resulting in 966 participants in the analysis population (mean age, 42 years; 255 [74%] male participants; mean Glasgow Coma Scale score, 8). Of these participants, 819 (84.8%) were available for primary outcome analysis at 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome occurred in 65% of patients in the tranexamic acid groups vs 62% in the placebo group (difference, 3.5%; [90% 1-sided confidence limit for benefit, -0.9%]; P = .16; [97.5% 1-sided confidence limit for harm, 10.2%]; P = .84). There was no statistically significant difference in 28-day mortality between the tranexamic acid groups vs the placebo group (14% vs 17%; difference, -2.9% [95% CI, -7.9% to 2.1%]; P = .26), 6-month Disability Rating Scale score (6.8 vs 7.6; difference, -0.9 [95% CI, -2.5 to 0.7]; P = .29), or progression of intracranial hemorrhage (16% vs 20%; difference, -5.4% [95% CI, -12.8% to 2.1%]; P = .16).
Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with moderate to severe TBI, out-of-hospital tranexamic acid administration within 2 hours of injury compared with placebo did not significantly improve 6-month neurologic outcome as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01990768.

PMID: 32897344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

TXA Administration in the Field Does Not Affect Admission TEG after Traumatic Brain Injury.

Neal Richmond, MD - Tue, 09/08/2020 - 18:57
Related Articles

TXA Administration in the Field Does Not Affect Admission TEG after Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020 Aug 28;:

Authors: Dixon AL, McCully BH, Rick EA, Dewey E, Farrell DH, Morrison LJ, McMullan J, Robinson BRH, Callum J, Tibbs B, Dries DJ, Jui J, Gandhi RR, Garrett JS, Weisfeldt ML, Wade CE, Aufderheide TP, Frascone RJ, Tallon JM, Kannas D, Williams C, Rowell SE, Schreiber MA, McKnight B, Meier EN, May S, Sheehan K, Bulger EM, Idris AH, Christenson J, Bosarge PL, Colella MR, Johannigman J, Cotton BA, Richmond NJ, Zielinski MD, Schlamp R, Klein L, Rizoli S, Gamber M, Fleming M, Hwang J, Vincent LE, Hendrickson A, Simonson R, Klotz P, Ferrara M, Sopko G, Witham W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: No FDA-approved medication improves outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A forthcoming clinical trial that evaluated the effects of two prehospital tranexamic acid (TXA) dosing strategies compared with placebo demonstrated no differences in thromboelastography (TEG) values. We proposed to explore the impact of TXA on markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with moderate to severe TBI.
METHODS: Data were extracted from a placebo-controlled clinical trial in which patients ≥15 years old with TBI (Glascow Coma Scale 3-12) and systolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg were randomized prehospital to receive placebo bolus/placebo infusion (Placebo), 1 gram (g) TXA bolus/1g TXA infusion (Bolus Maintenance [BM]); or 2g TXA bolus/placebo infusion (Bolus Only [BO]). TEG was performed and coagulation measures including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), international ratio (INR), fibrinogen, D-dimer, plasmin anti-plasmin (PAP), thrombin anti-thrombin (TAT), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were quantified at admission and six hours later.
RESULTS: Of 966 patients receiving study drug, 700 had labs drawn at admission and six hours later. There were no statistically significant differences in TEG values, including LY30, between groups (p>0.05). No differences between PT, aPTT, INR, fibrinogen, TAT, tPA, and PAI-1 were demonstrated across treatment groups. Concentrations of D-dimer in TXA treatment groups were less than placebo at six hours (p<0.001). Concentrations of PAP were less in TXA treatment groups than placebo on admission (p<0.001) and six hours (p=0.02). No differences in D-dimer and PAP were observed between BM and BO.
CONCLUSION: While D-dimer and PAP levels reflect a lower degree of fibrinolysis following prehospital administration of TXA when compared to placebo in a large prehospital trial of patients with TBI, TEG obtained on admission and six hours later did not demonstrate any differences in fibrinolysis between the two TXA dosing regimens and placebo.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III; Diagnostic.

PMID: 32868544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

TXA Administration in the Field Does Not Affect Admission TEG after Traumatic Brain Injury.

Related Articles

TXA Administration in the Field Does Not Affect Admission TEG after Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020 Aug 28;:

Authors: Dixon AL, McCully BH, Rick EA, Dewey E, Farrell DH, Morrison LJ, McMullan J, Robinson BRH, Callum J, Tibbs B, Dries DJ, Jui J, Gandhi RR, Garrett JS, Weisfeldt ML, Wade CE, Aufderheide TP, Frascone RJ, Tallon JM, Kannas D, Williams C, Rowell SE, Schreiber MA, McKnight B, Meier EN, May S, Sheehan K, Bulger EM, Idris AH, Christenson J, Bosarge PL, Colella MR, Johannigman J, Cotton BA, Richmond NJ, Zielinski MD, Schlamp R, Klein L, Rizoli S, Gamber M, Fleming M, Hwang J, Vincent LE, Hendrickson A, Simonson R, Klotz P, Ferrara M, Sopko G, Witham W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: No FDA-approved medication improves outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A forthcoming clinical trial that evaluated the effects of two prehospital tranexamic acid (TXA) dosing strategies compared with placebo demonstrated no differences in thromboelastography (TEG) values. We proposed to explore the impact of TXA on markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with moderate to severe TBI.
METHODS: Data were extracted from a placebo-controlled clinical trial in which patients ≥15 years old with TBI (Glascow Coma Scale 3-12) and systolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg were randomized prehospital to receive placebo bolus/placebo infusion (Placebo), 1 gram (g) TXA bolus/1g TXA infusion (Bolus Maintenance [BM]); or 2g TXA bolus/placebo infusion (Bolus Only [BO]). TEG was performed and coagulation measures including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), international ratio (INR), fibrinogen, D-dimer, plasmin anti-plasmin (PAP), thrombin anti-thrombin (TAT), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were quantified at admission and six hours later.
RESULTS: Of 966 patients receiving study drug, 700 had labs drawn at admission and six hours later. There were no statistically significant differences in TEG values, including LY30, between groups (p>0.05). No differences between PT, aPTT, INR, fibrinogen, TAT, tPA, and PAI-1 were demonstrated across treatment groups. Concentrations of D-dimer in TXA treatment groups were less than placebo at six hours (p<0.001). Concentrations of PAP were less in TXA treatment groups than placebo on admission (p<0.001) and six hours (p=0.02). No differences in D-dimer and PAP were observed between BM and BO.
CONCLUSION: While D-dimer and PAP levels reflect a lower degree of fibrinolysis following prehospital administration of TXA when compared to placebo in a large prehospital trial of patients with TBI, TEG obtained on admission and six hours later did not demonstrate any differences in fibrinolysis between the two TXA dosing regimens and placebo.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III; Diagnostic.

PMID: 32868544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Targeted Molecular Therapeutic Options for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Bassam Ghabach, MD - Tue, 09/01/2020 - 16:09
Related Articles

Targeted Molecular Therapeutic Options for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Crit Rev Oncog. 2020;25(1):47-55

Authors: Sridhar S, Sharma I, Sankpal UT, Ghabach B, Narra K, Neerukonda L, Basha R

Abstract
Liver cancer is the 6th leading cause of cancer related deaths in the US even though it ranks 14th in incidence. More men are diagnosed with liver cancer than women, and the number of projected deaths among men (20,020) is almost double that among women (10,140) in the US. Infections like hepatitis and metabolic conditions like obesity are believed to be major risk factors for the onset of liver cancer. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the most common type of liver cancer, accounts for 75% of all cases. Chemotherapy has not been effective in treating HCC. Targeted therapies are being used in advanced HCC patients due to a better survival and less side effects when compared to traditional chemotherapy. Therapeutic agents targeting the regulators of growth factor signaling pathways and the mediators of downstream signaling-for example, inhibitors of the tyrosine kinase receptor-are used as targeted molecular therapies. Kinase inhibitors that modulate growth signals, such as sorafenib and lenvatinib, are commonly employed in targeted molecular therapy for HCC patients. This review covers these agents, highlighting modes of action and providing details on clinical trials.

PMID: 32865910 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Current Perspectives in Immunotherapy for Liver Cancer.

Bassam Ghabach, MD - Tue, 09/01/2020 - 16:09
Related Articles

Current Perspectives in Immunotherapy for Liver Cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog. 2020;25(1):31-46

Authors: Lambring CB, Ghabach B, Narra K, Basha R

Abstract
Liver cancer is a particularly aggressive group of malignancies with historically low survival rates. Despite advancements in cancer treatments in general in the last few decades, incidence and mortality have not changed. Even though some phase 1 and 2 studies have shown promising results, many medication have failed to reach a sustainable level of efficacy to move into the clinical setting. Immunotherapy drugs have shown impressive results in the treatment of specific immunogenic cancers, prompting the possibility of their use in liver cancers. Immunotherapy medications approved for other cancers have received FDA accelerated approval for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. But, these approvals are contingent upon verification and description of clinical benefit in confirmatory trials. With more treatments in development involving cancer vaccines and natural killer cell-mediated therapy, liver cancer treatment is being reinvigorated with a broad array of new treatment angles. In this review article, we discuss these treatments, focusing on mechanism of action and clinical trials. Much needed advancements in treating late- and early-stage liver cancers will require new and innovative immunotherapeutic treatments.

PMID: 32865909 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Perception of Physician Empathy Varies With Educational Level and Gender of Patients Undergoing Low-Yield Computerized Tomographic Imaging.

Hao Wang, MD - Tue, 08/25/2020 - 13:09
Related Articles

Perception of Physician Empathy Varies With Educational Level and Gender of Patients Undergoing Low-Yield Computerized Tomographic Imaging.

J Patient Exp. 2020 Jun;7(3):386-394

Authors: Kline JA, Lin MP, Hall CL, Puskarich MA, Dehon E, Kuehl DR, Wang RC, Hess EP, Runyon MS, Wang H, Courtney DM

Abstract
Objective: Lack of empathic communication between providers and patients may contribute to low value diagnostic testing in emergency care. Accordingly, we measured the perception of physician empathy and trust in patients undergoing low-value computed tomography (CT) in the emergency department (ED).
Methods: Multicenter study of ED patients undergoing CT scanning, acknowledged by ordering physicians as unlikely to show an emergent condition. Near the end of their visit, patients completed the Jefferson Scale of Patient Perception of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE), Trust in Physicians Survey (TIPS), and the Group Based Medical Mistrust Scale (GBMMS). We stratified results by patient demographics including gender, race, and education.
Results: We enrolled 305 participants across 9 sites with diverse geographic, racial, and ethnic representation. The median scores (interquartile ranges) for the JSPPPE, TIPS, and GBMMS for all patients were 29 (24-33.5), 55 (47-62), and 18 (12-29). Compared with white patients, nonwhite patients had similar JSPPPE and TIPS scores but had higher (worse) GBMMS scores. Females had significantly lower JSPPPE and TIPS scores than males, and scores were lower (worse) in females with college degrees. Patients in the lowest tier of educational status had the highest (better) JSPPPE and TIPS scores. Scores were invariant with physician characteristics.
Conclusion: Among patients undergoing low-value CT scanning in the ED, the degree of patient perception of physician empathy and trust varied based on the patients' level of education and gender. Given this variation, an intervention to increase patient perception of physician empathy should contain individualized strategies to address these subgroups, rather than a one-size-fits-all approach.

PMID: 32821799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Perception of Physician Empathy Varies With Educational Level and Gender of Patients Undergoing Low-Yield Computerized Tomographic Imaging.

Related Articles

Perception of Physician Empathy Varies With Educational Level and Gender of Patients Undergoing Low-Yield Computerized Tomographic Imaging.

J Patient Exp. 2020 Jun;7(3):386-394

Authors: Kline JA, Lin MP, Hall CL, Puskarich MA, Dehon E, Kuehl DR, Wang RC, Hess EP, Runyon MS, Wang H, Courtney DM

Abstract
Objective: Lack of empathic communication between providers and patients may contribute to low value diagnostic testing in emergency care. Accordingly, we measured the perception of physician empathy and trust in patients undergoing low-value computed tomography (CT) in the emergency department (ED).
Methods: Multicenter study of ED patients undergoing CT scanning, acknowledged by ordering physicians as unlikely to show an emergent condition. Near the end of their visit, patients completed the Jefferson Scale of Patient Perception of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE), Trust in Physicians Survey (TIPS), and the Group Based Medical Mistrust Scale (GBMMS). We stratified results by patient demographics including gender, race, and education.
Results: We enrolled 305 participants across 9 sites with diverse geographic, racial, and ethnic representation. The median scores (interquartile ranges) for the JSPPPE, TIPS, and GBMMS for all patients were 29 (24-33.5), 55 (47-62), and 18 (12-29). Compared with white patients, nonwhite patients had similar JSPPPE and TIPS scores but had higher (worse) GBMMS scores. Females had significantly lower JSPPPE and TIPS scores than males, and scores were lower (worse) in females with college degrees. Patients in the lowest tier of educational status had the highest (better) JSPPPE and TIPS scores. Scores were invariant with physician characteristics.
Conclusion: Among patients undergoing low-value CT scanning in the ED, the degree of patient perception of physician empathy and trust varied based on the patients' level of education and gender. Given this variation, an intervention to increase patient perception of physician empathy should contain individualized strategies to address these subgroups, rather than a one-size-fits-all approach.

PMID: 32821799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Examining Injustice Appraisals in a Racially Diverse Sample of Individuals With Chronic Low Back Pain.

Related Articles

Examining Injustice Appraisals in a Racially Diverse Sample of Individuals With Chronic Low Back Pain.

J Pain. 2019 01;20(1):83-96

Authors: Trost Z, Sturgeon J, Guck A, Ziadni M, Nowlin L, Goodin B, Scott W

Abstract
Injustice perception has emerged as a risk factor for problematic musculoskeletal pain outcomes. Despite the prevalence and impact of chronic low back pain (CLBP), no study has addressed injustice appraisals specifically among individuals with CLBP. In addition, despite racial/ethnic disparities in pain, existing injustice research has relied almost exclusively on white/Caucasian participant samples. The current study examined the associations between perceived injustice and pain, disability, and depression in a diverse community sample of individuals with CLBP (N = 137) -51 (37.2%) white, 43 (31.4%) Hispanic, 43 (31.4%) black or African American). Anger variables were tested as potential mediators of these relationships. Controlling for demographic and pain-related covariates, perceived injustice accounted for unique variance in self-reported depression and disability outcomes, but not pain intensity. State and trait anger, and anger inhibition mediated the association between perceived injustice and depression; no additional mediation by anger was observed. Significant racial differences were also noted. Compared with white and Hispanic participants, black participants reported higher levels of perceived injustice related to CLBP, as well as higher depression and pain-related disability. Black participants also reported higher pain intensity than white participants. Current findings provide initial evidence regarding the role of injustice perception specifically in the context of CLBP and within a racially diverse participant sample. Results highlight the need for greater diversity within injustice and CLBP research as well as research regarding socially informed antecedents of injustice appraisals. Perspective: Perceived injustice predicted worse outcomes in CLBP, with effects partially mediated by anger. Black participants reported worse pain outcomes and higher injustice perception than their white or Hispanic counterparts. Given racial inequities within broader health and pain-specific outcomes, this topic is critical for CLBP and perceived injustice research.

PMID: 30179671 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Smoking cessation and survival among people diagnosed with non-metastatic cancer.

Bassam Ghabach, MD - Tue, 08/11/2020 - 08:43
Related Articles

Smoking cessation and survival among people diagnosed with non-metastatic cancer.

BMC Cancer. 2020 Aug 05;20(1):726

Authors: Barnett TE, Lu Y, Gehr AW, Ghabach B, Ojha RP

Abstract
BACKGROUND: We aimed to estimate the effects of smoking cessation on survival among people diagnosed with cancer.
METHODS: We used data from a Comprehensive Community Cancer Program that is part of a large urban safety-net hospital system. Eligible patients were diagnosed with primary invasive solid tumors between 2013 and 2015, and were current smokers at time of diagnosis. Our exposure of interest was initiation of smoking cessation within 6 months of cancer diagnosis. We estimated inverse probability weighted restricted mean survival time (RMST) differences and risk ratio (RR) for all cause 3-year mortality.
RESULTS: Our study population comprised 369 patients, of whom 42% were aged < 55 years, 59% were male, 44% were racial/ethnic minorities, and 59% were uninsured. The 3-year RMST was 1.8 (95% CL: - 1.5, 5.1) months longer for individuals who initiated smoking cessation within 6 months of cancer diagnosis. The point estimate for risk of 3-year mortality was lower for initiation of smoking cessation within 6 months of diagnosis compared with no initiation within 6 months (RR = 0.72, 95% CL: 0.37, 1.4).
CONCLUSIONS: Our point estimates suggest longer 3-year survival, but the results are compatible with 1.5 month shorter or 5.1 longer 3-year overall survival after smoking cessation within 6 months of cancer diagnosis. Future studies with larger sample sizes that test the comparative effectiveness of different smoking cessation strategies are needed for more detailed evidence to inform decision-making about the effect of smoking cessation on survival among cancer patients.
IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: The benefits of smoking cessation after cancer diagnosis may include longer survival, but the magnitude of benefit is unclear.

PMID: 32758159 [PubMed - in process]

Pages