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Recent Research Articles from JPS Health Network

What is the Resident Perception of Physician Assistants in an Oral and Maxillofacial Training Program?

Mon, 08/02/2021 - 05:00

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2021 Jul 7:S0278-2391(21)00654-6. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2021.07.001. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: Physician assistants (PAs) are not employed in a widespread manner in the academic oral and maxillofacial surgery setting despite being able to assist with resident workload. We aim to measure residents' perception of PAs employed by an academic oral and maxillofacial surgery department after the addition of 2 PAs to the department.

METHODS: The investigators conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey study addressing resident perception of PA's on reducing their working hours, the scope of PA's role, and the positive and negatives of working with a PA. The survey was distributed to current oral and maxillofacial surgery residents, non-categorical interns, and recent graduates at Parkland Memorial Hospital and John Peter Smith Hospital between November 1, 2020 and January 31, 2021. A follow up survey to collect demographic data was distributed between May 20, 2021 and June 10, 2021. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results, with bootstrapping techniques to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CI).

RESULTS: Investigators contacted 54 residents and recent alumni, and 31 (57%) responded to the original survey and 32 responded to the follow-up survey. All respondents agreed that the addition of PAs decreased resident workload (100%; 95% CI). The majority stated PAs should assist with rounding on inpatients (61%; 95% CI), in hospital consultations (52%; 95% CI), clinic appointments (74%; 95% CI), and patient care coordination (97%; 95% CI). Only 29% (95% CI) stated that PAs should be assisting in the operating room.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that residents perceive the addition of PAs to the academic oral and maxillofacial surgery program to be beneficial when it comes to reducing overall workload and increasing potential educational opportunities, by assisting with care coordination, outpatient appointments, and inpatient rounding.

PMID:34339615 | DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2021.07.001

A retrospective analysis of calcium levels in pediatric trauma patients

Mon, 08/02/2021 - 05:00

Int J Burns Trauma. 2021 Jun 15;11(3):267-274. eCollection 2021.


Traumatic injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. Hemorrhage is a known but treatable component of these outcomes. Evidence exists that major trauma patients are at high risk for hypocalcemia but the rate of pediatric occurrence is not documented. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of hypocalcemia in pediatric trauma patients, as well as to investigate any correlation between hypocalcemia and the need for transfusion and operative intervention. After IRB approval a retrospective analysis was conducted of all pediatric trauma patients seen in our Adult Level One, Pediatric Level Two trauma center. Significance testing for mortality was performed using Pearson's χ2 test. For the remaining numeric variables, association was determined one-way analysis of variance (when comparing all classes) or Welch's two-sample t-test (when comparing subsets based on calcium or mortality). In any event, significance was determined using α=0.05. A total of 2,928 patients were identified, 1623 were excluded, primarily due to incomplete data. Patients were predominantly male following blunt trauma. Initial calcium levels were 8.73 mg/dL, 95% CI [4-10.9] and 8.97 mg/dL, 95% CI [6.42-13.1] when correcting for albumin levels. Acute declines were noted when comparing initial and corrected serum calcium levels in patients requiring transfusion (7.99 mg/dL and 8.72 mg/dL) and operative intervention (8.54 mg/dL and 8.91 mg/dL). 456 (34.9%) patients required operative intervention, 138 (10.6%) required transfusion and 29 (2.2%) required massive transfusion. Patients in our cohort arrived with calcium values on the low end of normal, with a trend towards hypocalcemia if operative intervention or blood transfusion was required. This has been previously associated with increased mortality. Patients requiring operative intervention and transfusion are at increased risk for hypocalcemia and recognition of this potential is key for improved outcomes.

PMID:34336394 | PMC:PMC8310872

Early versus Late Surgical Decompression for Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury on Neurological Recovery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Tue, 07/27/2021 - 05:00

J Neurotrauma. 2021 Jul 27. doi: 10.1089/neu.2021.0102. Online ahead of print.


This study aimed to investigate whether early surgical decompression was associated with favourable neurological recovery in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (tSCI). We searched PubMed and Embase from the database inception through December 2020 and selected studies comparing the impact of early versus late surgical decompression on neurological recovery as assessed by American Spinal Injury Association Impairment Scale (AIS) for adult patients sustaining tSCI. We pooled the effect estimates in random-effects models and quantified the heterogeneity by the I2 statistics. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis was conducted to identify significant outcome moderator. We included 26 studies involving 3,574 patients in the meta-analysis. The pooled results demonstrated significant association between early surgical decompression and an improvement of at least one AIS grade (odds ratio [OR], 1.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-2.41; I2, 48.06%). The benefits of early surgical decompression were consistently observed across different subgroups, including patients with cervical or thoracolumbar injury and patients with complete or incomplete injury. The meta-regression analysis indicated that cut-off timing defining early versus late decompression was a significant effect moderator, with early decompression performed before post-tSCI 8 or 12 h associated with greatest benefits (OR, 3.37; 95% CI, 1.74-6.50; I2, 53.52%). No obvious publication bias was detected by the funnel plot. In conclusion, early surgical decompression was associated with favourable neurological recovery for tSCI patients. However, there was a lack of high-quality evidence and the results need further examination.

PMID:34314253 | DOI:10.1089/neu.2021.0102

If kids ruled the world, how would they stop non-medical use of prescription drugs?

Fri, 07/23/2021 - 05:00

J Health Res. 2020 Aug 7;34(4):283-294. doi: 10.1108/jhr-02-2019-0031. Epub 2020 Feb 14.


PURPOSE: We examined ideas about how youth would mitigate non-medical use of prescription medications among their peers.

DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The National Monitoring of Adolescent Prescription Stimulants Study (N-MAPSS) interviewed 11,048 youth10-18 years of age between 2008 and 2011 from entertainment venues of 10 US urban, suburban, and rural areas. Using a mixed-methods approach, participants completed a survey culminating in open ended questions asking: 1) How should kids your age be told about prescription drugs and their effects?; 2) If you ran the world, how would you stop kids from taking other people's prescription medicines?; 3)Why do people use prescription stimulants without a prescription? Responses from a random sample of 900 children were analyzed using qualitative thematic analyses.

FINDINGS: The random sample of 900 youth (52% female, 40% white, with a mean age was 15.1 years) believed they should be educated about prescription drugs and their negative effects at schools, at home by parents, through the media, and health professionals. Youth would stop kids from using other people's prescription drugs through more stringent laws that restricted use, and education about negative consequences of use. Peer pressure was the most common reason youth gave for using other's pills, though some reported using for curiosity.

ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This analysis shows the importance of considering youth's opinions on non-medical use of prescription medications, which are often overlooked. Studies should disseminate this data from youth to stop the illicit use of prescription drugs among teens and youth.

PMID:34296069 | PMC:PMC8293975 | DOI:10.1108/jhr-02-2019-0031

Epidemiology of NCAA Bone Stress Injuries: A Comparison of Athletes in Divisions I, II, and III

Thu, 07/22/2021 - 05:00

Orthop J Sports Med. 2021 Jul 9;9(7):23259671211014496. doi: 10.1177/23259671211014496. eCollection 2021 Jul.


BACKGROUND: Bone stress injuries (BSIs) are a major source of functional impairment in athletes of all sports, with many risk factors, including athlete characteristics and type of sport. In National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletics, the stratification of programs into divisions with different characteristics and makeup has been identified as increasing the risk for certain kinds of injuries, but there have been no studies on the difference of BSI rates and characteristics between athletes in Division I (DI) and those in Divisions II and III (DII and DIII).

PURPOSE/HYPOTHESIS: To characterize the BSI rates in each division and compare the incidence and characteristics of BSIs within divisions. Our hypothesis was that BSI rates would be higher in DII and DIII athletes as compared with DI athletes.

STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive epidemiology study.

METHODS: Five years of recorded BSI data in collegiate athletes via the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program were examined for the academic years 2009-2010 to 2013-2014. BSI rates per 100,000 athlete-exposures (AEs) were compared for DI versus DII and DIII athletes using risk ratios and 95% CIs. Time lost to injury, time of season of injury, and class composition of injured athletes were also compared between divisions.

RESULTS: Over the 5 years studied, DII and DIII programs reported 252 BSIs more than 1,793,777 AEs (14.05 per 100,000 AEs), and DI programs reported 235 BSIs over 2,022,592 AEs (11.62 per 100,000 AEs). The risk ratio was significant for D1 versus DII and DIII (1.21; 95% CI, 1.01-1.44). There was a significant difference in time lost to injury in DI versus DII and DIII, χ2(5, n = 449) = 16.54; P = .006. When data were stratified by individual sport, there were no significant divisional differences in high-risk sports.

CONCLUSION: In the current study, NCAA DII and DIII athletes had higher rates of BSI than their DI counterparts. As compared with DII and DIII athletes, the DI athletes had a significantly greater proportion of BSIs that did not result in absence from participation in sport.

PMID:34291114 | PMC:PMC8274115 | DOI:10.1177/23259671211014496

How Do We Move the Needle?: Building a Framework for Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Within Graduate Medical Education

Wed, 07/21/2021 - 05:00

Fam Med. 2021 Jul;53(7):556-558. doi: 10.22454/FamMed.2021.199007. Epub 2021 Jun 17.


PMID:34289501 | DOI:10.22454/FamMed.2021.199007

Brief Report: HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Prescribing in an Urban Safety-Net Health System

Wed, 07/21/2021 - 05:00

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2021 Jul 19. doi: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000002767. Online ahead of print.


PMID:34285157 | DOI:10.1097/QAI.0000000000002767

Letter Regarding "Long-Term Outcome of Surgical Treatment for Kienböck Disease Using an Articular-Based Classification"

Mon, 07/19/2021 - 05:00

J Hand Surg Am. 2021 Jul 15:S0363-5023(21)00365-8. doi: 10.1016/j.jhsa.2021.06.005. Online ahead of print.


PMID:34275682 | DOI:10.1016/j.jhsa.2021.06.005

The Role of Early Subspeciality Consultation in the Timing of Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis Diagnosis and Management

Thu, 07/15/2021 - 05:00

J Clin Rheumatol. 2021 Jun 18. doi: 10.1097/RHU.0000000000001759. Online ahead of print.


OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between timing of subspeciality consult and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) consideration, immunosuppression initiation, and in-hospital mortality in patients with HLH.

METHODS: We conducted a medical records review study of patients 18 years or older with definite or probable HLH at Montefiore Medical Center between 2006 and 2019. Earlier subspeciality consultation (rheumatology, hematology, and infectious disease) was defined as consultation in less than or equal to 18 hours from time of admission. Demographic, clinical characteristics, and outcomes were compared between patients with early and later subspecialty consultation.

RESULTS: A total of 28 patients were included. The median age was 40 years, and 61% of patients were male. Infection was identified as a cause of HLH in 13 patients (46%). Fifteen patients (54%) were classified as having an earlier subspeciality consultation with a median time (interquartile range) to HLH consideration of 1.0 day (0.3-4.2 days) compared with 7.9 days (3.1-9.9 days) for the later consultation group (p = 0.002). The median time (interquartile range) to immunosuppression initiation was 4.6 days (1.7-7.8 days) versus 10.9 days (5.1-13.4 days) (p = 0.01), respectively. Five patients (33%) had in-hospital deaths in the early consultation group compared with 7 patients (54%) in later consultation group (p = 0.27). Among the subset of patients who survived to discharge, the 90-day readmission rate was higher in the later consultation group (83% vs 30%, p = 0.12).

CONCLUSIONS: In patients with HLH, earlier subspeciality consultation may play a role in earlier HLH consideration and treatment initiation.

PMID:34262003 | DOI:10.1097/RHU.0000000000001759

The effect of deadlines on cancer screening completion: a randomized controlled trial

Wed, 07/07/2021 - 05:00

Sci Rep. 2021 Jul 6;11(1):13876. doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-93334-1.


Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Although screening facilitates prevention and early detection and is one of the most effective approaches to reducing cancer mortality, participation is low-particularly among underserved populations. In a large, preregistered field experiment (n = 7711), we tested whether deadlines-both with and without monetary incentives tied to them-increase colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We found that all screening invitations with an imposed deadline increased completion, ranging from 2.5% to 7.3% relative to control (ps < .004). Most importantly, individuals who received a short deadline with no incentive were as likely to complete screening (9.7%) as those whose invitation included a deadline coupled with either a small (9.1%) or large declining financial incentive (12.0%; ps = .57 and .04, respectively). These results suggest that merely imposing deadlines-especially short ones-can significantly increase CRC screening completion, and may also have implications for other forms of cancer screening.

PMID:34230556 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-021-93334-1

Functional Ability Classification Based on Moderate and Severe Kinesophobia and Demoralization Scores in Degenerative Spine Patients

Tue, 07/06/2021 - 05:00

Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2021 Aug 1;46(15):E826-E831. doi: 10.1097/BRS.0000000000003943.


STUDY DESIGN: A prospective cohort study.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship of fear avoidance and demoralization on gait and balance and determine a threshold score for the Tampa Scale for Kinesophobia (TSK) and the Demoralization Scale (DS) that identifies spine patients with gait and balance dysfunction amplified by underlying psychological factors.

SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Fear avoidance and demoralization are crucial components of mental health that impact the outcomes in spine surgery. However, interpreting their effect on patient function remains challenging. Further establishing this correlation and identifying a threshold of severity can aid in identifying patients in whom a portion of their altered gait and balance may be amplified by underlying psychologic distress.

METHODS: Four hundred five symptomatic spine patients were given the TSK and DS questionnaires. Patient's gait and balance were tested with a human motion capture system. A TSK score of 41 and a DS score of 30 were chosen as thresholds to classify moderate versus severe dysfunction based on literature and statistical analysis.

RESULTS: Higher TSK and DS scores were correlated with worse walking speed (P < 0.001), longer stride time (P = 0.001), decreased stride length (P < 0.048), and wider step width (<0.001) during gait as well as increased sway across planes (P = 0.001) during standing balance. When classified by TSK scores >41, patients with more severe fear avoidance had slower walking speed (P < 0.001), longer stride time (P = 0.001), shorter stride length (P = 0.004), increased step width (P < 0.001), and increased sway (P = 0.001) compared with their lower scoring counterparts. Similarly, patients with DS > 30 had slower walking speed (P = 0.012), longer stride time (P = 0.022), and increased sway (P = 0.003) compared with their lower scoring counterparts.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that fear avoidance and demoralization directly correlate with worsening gait and balance. Furthermore, patients with TSK > 41 and DS > 30 have more underlying psychological factors that contribute to significantly worse function compared with lower scoring peers. Understanding this relationship and using these guidelines can help identify and treat patients whose gait dysfunction may be amplified by psychologic distress.Level of Evidence: 3.

PMID:34228693 | DOI:10.1097/BRS.0000000000003943

Limitations of Screening for Depression as a Proxy for Suicide Risk in Adult Medical Inpatients

Mon, 07/05/2021 - 05:00

J Acad Consult Liaison Psychiatry. 2021 Jul-Aug;62(4):413-420. doi: 10.1016/j.jaclp.2021.02.002. Epub 2021 Feb 12.


BACKGROUND: Medically ill hospitalized patients are at elevated risk for suicide. Hospitals that already screen for depression often use depression screening as a proxy for suicide risk screening. Extant research has indicated that screening for depression may not be sufficient to identify all patients at risk for suicide.

OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to determine the effectiveness of a depression screening tool, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, in detecting suicide risk among adult medical inpatients.

METHODS: Participants were recruited from inpatient medical/surgical units in 4 hospitals as part of a larger validation study. Participants completed the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and 2 suicide risk measures: the Ask Suicide-Screening Questions and the Adult Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire.

RESULTS: The sample consisted of 727 adult medical inpatients (53.4% men; 61.8% white; mean age 50.1 ± 16.3 years). A total of 116 participants (116 of 727 [16.0%]) screened positive for suicide risk and 175 (175 of 727 [24.1%]) screened positive for depression. Of the 116 patients who screened positive for suicide risk, 36 (31.0%) screened negative for depression on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Of 116, 73 (62.9%) individuals who were at risk for suicide did not endorse item 9 (thoughts of harming oneself or of being better off dead) on the Patient Health Questionnaire-9.

CONCLUSION: Using depression screening tools as a proxy for suicide risk may be insufficient to detect adult medical inpatients at risk for suicide. Asking directly about suicide risk and using validated tools is necessary to effectively and efficiently screen for suicide risk in this population.

PMID:34219655 | DOI:10.1016/j.jaclp.2021.02.002

Treatment-resistant High Output Ileostomy Secondary to Subtherapeutic Valproic Acid

Thu, 06/24/2021 - 05:00

Prim Care Companion CNS Disord. 2021 Jun 24;23(4):20l02760. doi: 10.4088/PCC.20l02760.


PMID:34167173 | DOI:10.4088/PCC.20l02760

Diabetes as a Risk Factor for Orthopedic Implant Surface Performance: A Retrieval and <em>In Vitro</em> Study

Mon, 06/21/2021 - 05:00

J Bio Tribocorros. 2021 Jun;7(2):51. doi: 10.1007/s40735-021-00486-8. Epub 2021 Feb 22.


Orthopedic devices are often associated with increased risk for diabetic patients due to impaired wound healing capabilities. Adverse biological responses for immunocompromised patients at the implant-tissue interface can lead to significant bone resorption that may increase failure rates. The goal of this study was to characterize the surface of implants removed from diabetic patients to determine underlying mechanisms of diabetes-induced impaired osseointegration. Thirty-nine retrieved titanium and stainless-steel orthopedic devices were obtained from diabetic and non-diabetic patients, and compared to non-implanted controls. Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy revealed changes in morphology, chemical composition, oxidation state, and oxide thickness of the retrieval specimens, respectively. Additionally, titanium disks were immersed for 28 days in simulated in vitro diabetic conditions followed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy to quantify metal dissolution. Electrochemical testing was performed on specimens from retrievals and in vitro study. Aside from biological deposits, retrievals demonstrated surface discoloration, pit-like formations and oxide thinning when compared to non-implanted controls, suggesting exposure to unfavorable acidic conditions. Cyclic load bearing areas on fracture-fixation screws and plates depicted cracking and delamination. The corrosion behavior was not significantly different between diabetic and non-diabetic conditions of immersed disks or implant type. However, simulated diabetic conditions elevated aluminum release. This elucidates orthopedic implant failures that potentially arise from diabetic environments at the implant-tissue interface. Design of new implant surfaces should consider specific strategies to induce constructive healing responses in immunocompromised patients while also mitigating corrosion in acidic diabetic environments.

PMID:34150468 | PMC:PMC8211117 | DOI:10.1007/s40735-021-00486-8

Monotherapy Anticoagulation to Expedite Home Treatment of Patients Diagnosed With Venous Thromboembolism in the Emergency Department: A Pragmatic Effectiveness Trial

Mon, 06/21/2021 - 05:00

Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2021 Jun 21:CIRCOUTCOMES120007600. doi: 10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.007600. Online ahead of print.


BACKGROUND: The objective was to test if low-risk emergency department patients with vitamin K antagonist (venous thromboembolism [VTE]; including venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism [PE]) can be safely and effectively treated at home with direct acting oral (monotherapy) anticoagulation in a large-scale, real-world pragmatic effectiveness trial.

METHODS: This was a single-arm trial, conducted from 2016 to 2019 in accordance with the Standards for Reporting Implementation Studies guideline in 33 emergency departments in the United States. Participants had newly diagnosed VTE with low risk of death based upon either the modified Hestia criteria, or physician judgment plus the simplified PE severity index score of zero, together with nonhigh bleeding risk were eligible. Patients had to be discharged within 24 hours of triage and treated with either apixaban or rivaroxaban. Effectiveness was defined by the primary efficacy and safety outcomes, image-proven recurrent VTE and bleeding requiring hospitalization >24 hours, respectively, with an upper limit of the 95% CI for the 30-day frequency of VTE recurrence below 2.0% for both outcomes.

RESULTS: We enrolled 1421 patients with complete outcomes data, including 903 with venous thrombosis and 518 with PE. The recurrent VTE requiring hospitalization occurred in 14/1421 (1.0% [95% CI, 0.5%-1.7%]), and bleeding requiring hospitalization occurred in 12/1421 (0.8% [0.4%-1.5%). The rate of severe bleeding using International Society for Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria was 2/1421 (0.1% [0%-0.5%]). No patient died, and serious adverse events occurred in 2.5% of venous thrombosis patients and 2.3% of patients with PE. Medication nonadherence was reported by patients in 8.0% (6.6%-9.5%) and was associated with a risk ratio of 6.0 (2.3-15.2) for VTE recurrence. Among all patients diagnosed with VTE in the emergency department during the period of study, 18% of venous thrombosis patients and 10% of patients with PE were enrolled.

CONCLUSIONS: Monotherapy treatment of low-risk patients with venous thrombosis or PE in the emergency department setting produced a low rate of bleeding and VTE recurrence, but may be underused. Patients with venous thrombosis and PE should undergo risk-stratification before home treatment. Improved patient adherence may reduce rate of recurrent VTE.

REGISTRATION: URL:; Unique identifier: NCT03404635.

PMID:34148351 | DOI:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.120.007600

Medial Clavicle Fracture Fixation Including the Sternum: A Case Report

Tue, 06/15/2021 - 05:00

JBJS Case Connect. 2021 Jun 15;11(2). doi: 10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.00778.


CASE: A 29-year-old man presented with a displaced medial clavicle fracture. Surgical repair was performed using a precontoured plate designed for the contralateral distal clavicle, and medial fixation was accomplished at the sternum. The patient had no complications and demonstrated full strength and range of motion at the 8-month follow-up.

CONCLUSION: Medial clavicle fractures with a small medial fragment can be immobilized using a plate designed for the contralateral distal clavicle that crosses the sternoclavicular joint to obtain medial fixation in the sternum. This technique may provide a viable treatment modality for this unique fracture pattern.

PMID:34129535 | DOI:10.2106/JBJS.CC.20.00778

Management of Salivary Gland Injury

Sat, 06/12/2021 - 05:00

Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2021 Jun 8:S1042-3699(21)00037-6. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2021.04.008. Online ahead of print.


Although a rare sequala of soft tissue injury, salivary gland trauma may result in significant morbidity. Salivary gland injury can involve the major as well as the minor glands. Because of the proximity of adjacent vital structures, a thorough history and physical examination are mandatory during patient evaluation. Trauma to the major salivary glands may involve the parenchyma, duct, or neural injury. Treatment requires adherence to primary principles of soft tissue management. Ductal and neural injury should be repaired primarily. Sialocele and fistula are potential complications of repaired and unrepaired salivary gland injury.

PMID:34116909 | DOI:10.1016/j.coms.2021.04.008

Pharmacological and Non-Pharmacological Methods of Post-Operative Pain Control Following Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery: A Scoping Review

Mon, 06/07/2021 - 05:00

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2021 Apr 29:S0278-2391(21)00408-0. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2021.04.022. Online ahead of print.


PURPOSE: To conduct a scoping review regarding current pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods of post-operative pain control following oral and maxillofacial surgery.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: PubMed was used to conduct research for this study. Identification criteria included surgery: patients undergoing the extraction of third molars; therapy: pharmacological or non-pharmacological methods; and outcomes: post-operative pain control. The search included full-text RCTs published after October 13, 2014, that were electronically accessible on PubMed and in the English language. After assessing quality, a scoping review was performed.

RESULTS: 35 RCTs were evaluated, which included a total of 3791 subjects. The studies evaluated patients' post-operative pain by either utilizing a visual analogue scale (VAS), measuring the time between surgery and when rescue analgesics were used, measuring the amount of rescue analgesics used, or by distributing questionnaires.

CONCLUSION: COX-2 inhibitors may provide greater analgesic effects compared to traditional nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Additionally, although the supplementation of an opioid analgesic to a NSAID regimen provides an increase in pain control, it does not further reduce pain levels in a patient alternating between ibuprofen and acetaminophen. Other methods of post-operative pain control mentioned in this review should be further explored in studies that contain larger sample sizes and that evaluate side effects of the treatment.

PMID:34097866 | DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2021.04.022

Augmented Renal Clearance Following Traumatic Injury in Critically Ill Patients Requiring Nutrition Therapy

Wed, 06/02/2021 - 05:00

Nutrients. 2021 May 15;13(5):1681. doi: 10.3390/nu13051681.


The intent of this study was to ascertain the prevalence of augmented renal clearance (ARC) in patients with traumatic injuries who require nutrition therapy and identify factors associated with ARC. Adult patients admitted to the trauma intensive care unit from January 2015 to September 2016 who received enteral or parenteral nutrition therapy and had a 24 h urine collection within 4 to 14 days after injury were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with a serum creatinine concentration > 1.5 mg/dL, required dialysis, or had an incomplete urine collection were excluded. ARC was defined as a measured creatinine clearance > 149 mL/min/1.73 m2. Two hundred and three patients were evaluated. One hundred and two (50%) exhibited ARC. A greater proportion of patients with ARC were male (86% vs. 67%; p = 0.004), had traumatic brain injury (33% vs. 9%; p = 0.001), a higher injury severity score (30 ± 11 vs. 26 ± 12; p = 0.015), were younger (36 ± 15 vs. 54 ± 17 years; p = 0.001), had a lower serum creatinine concentration (0.7 ± 2 vs. 0.9 ± 0.2 mg/dL; p = 0.001) and were more catabolic (nitrogen balance of -10.8 ± 13.0 vs. -6.2 ± 9.2 g/d; p = 0.004). The multivariate analysis revealed African American race and protein intake were also associated with ARC. Half of critically ill patients with traumatic injuries experience ARC. Patients with multiple risk factors for ARC should be closely evaluated for dosing of renally-eliminated electrolytes, nutrients, and medications.

PMID:34063391 | DOI:10.3390/nu13051681

Knotless Webspace Reconstruction Technique for Central Metacarpal Ray Resections

Fri, 05/28/2021 - 05:00

Tech Hand Up Extrem Surg. 2021 May 27. doi: 10.1097/BTH.0000000000000358. Online ahead of print.


Ray amputations of the hand are procedures performed for traumatic injuries, infection, neoplasm, and certain deformities. When performed for the central digits, the gap created between the remaining digits can significantly impact hand function. Multiple deep transverse metacarpal ligament reconstruction techniques and bone transposition have been described to address this issue. The purpose of this case series is to describe a novel technique utilizing a knotless suture anchor reconstruction of the deep transverse metacarpal ligament after central digit ray amputation. We present a novel knotless suture anchor reconstruction technique through a single incision which allowed for an immediate range of motion. We present 2 cases where this technique was utilized with satisfactory cosmetic and functional outcomes. Knotless webspace reconstruction for central metacarpal ray resection reconstruction is technically simple and allowed for immediate motion with satisfactory cosmetic and functional patient outcomes. Level of Evidence: Level IV-therapeutic.

PMID:34049384 | DOI:10.1097/BTH.0000000000000358