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Fayette C. Williams, DDS, MD, FACS

Jaw in a Day: Immediate Dental Rehabilitation during Fibula Reconstruction of the Mandible

Wed, 08/11/2021 - 05:00

Facial Plast Surg. 2021 Aug 11. doi: 10.1055/s-0041-1732478. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Reconstructing mandibular defects presents challenges to dental rehabilitation related to altered bone and soft tissue anatomy. Dental implants are the most reliable method to restore the lost dentition. Immediate dental implants have been placed for many years but with unacceptably low rates of dental/prosthetic success. Current virtual technology allows placement of both fibulas and guided implants in restoratively driven positions that also allow immediate dental rehabilitation. Inexpensive three-dimensional printing platforms can create provisional dental prostheses placed at the time of surgery. This article reviews our digital and surgical workflow to create an immediate dental prosthesis to predictably restore the dentition during major jaw reconstruction with fibula free flaps.

PMID:34380165 | DOI:10.1055/s-0041-1732478

Management of Salivary Gland Injury

Sat, 06/12/2021 - 05:00

Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2021 Jun 8:S1042-3699(21)00037-6. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2021.04.008. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

Although a rare sequala of soft tissue injury, salivary gland trauma may result in significant morbidity. Salivary gland injury can involve the major as well as the minor glands. Because of the proximity of adjacent vital structures, a thorough history and physical examination are mandatory during patient evaluation. Trauma to the major salivary glands may involve the parenchyma, duct, or neural injury. Treatment requires adherence to primary principles of soft tissue management. Ductal and neural injury should be repaired primarily. Sialocele and fistula are potential complications of repaired and unrepaired salivary gland injury.

PMID:34116909 | DOI:10.1016/j.coms.2021.04.008

Immediate Teeth in Fibulas: Expanded Clinical Applications and Surgical Technique

Mon, 05/24/2021 - 05:00

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2021 Apr 19:S0278-2391(21)00326-8. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2021.04.005. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The placement of immediate implants and teeth during jaw reconstruction using a fibula free flap has increased in recent years. Modifications of traditional fibula reconstructive techniques are needed to maximize success. This technique has not been described in patients requiring simultaneous soft tissue reconstruction. Our patient cohort includes cases with malignant pathology and those requiring skin paddles. With digital workflows and point-of-care 3D printing, surgery is no longer delayed weeks for prosthesis fabrication. The purpose of this case series is to demonstrate a single institution's experience with expanded clinical applications and surgical techniques that enable predictable outcomes for immediate teeth in fibula flaps.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-five implants were placed in 22 patients undergoing fibula reconstruction of the jaw with immediate implants and an immediate dental prosthesis. Skin paddles were used in 10 patients while 12 patients had native mucosa. Six patients were treated for malignancies and underwent postoperative radiation. Implant success and complications were compared between implants with skin paddles and implants with native mucosa.

RESULTS: Of 95 implants, 92 implants integrated for a 97% integration rate. All 13 radiated implants in 4 patients integrated. All 36 implants adjacent to skin paddles in 10 patients integrated. Seven implants were lost in a delayed fashion 9 to 15 months postoperatively resulting in a 93% overall implant success rate. Of the 22 patients, diagnoses were benign pathology for 11 patients, malignant pathology for 6 patients, gunshot wounds for 3 patients, and osteoradionecrosis for 2 patients.

CONCLUSION: Immediate placement of dental prostheses on immediate implants during fibula reconstruction of the jaws can be performed with a high rate of predictability. This technique can be expanded to select patients needing skin paddles. Modifications of traditional fibula reconstructive techniques are helpful to minimize soft tissue and prosthetic challenges.

PMID:34029526 | DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2021.04.005

A slow-growing anterior maxillary mass

Mon, 03/01/2021 - 05:00

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2021 Jan 29:S2212-4403(21)00068-7. doi: 10.1016/j.oooo.2021.01.021. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

A 43-year-old-male with no medical conditions presented to his dentist with a left maxillary swelling present for 1 year. His physical exam revealed a 2-cm × 2-cm, poorly demarcated, firm mass in the left anterior maxilla causing mobility of the associated teeth. He had a bluish discoloration of the anterior maxillary mucosa. A computed tomographic scan demonstrated a homogeneous and uniformly radiolucent, well-defined mass in the left anterior maxilla primarily involving the alveolus and the roots of teeth 7-12. The mass caused expansion and tooth displacement. An incisional biopsy was done and MUC 4 staining was diffusely positive so the diagnosis of low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS) was made. He underwent wide local excision and reconstruction with a fibula free flap and a three-dimensionally printed, implant-retained prosthesis. The final pathology confirmed the diagnosis of LGFMS, stage pT4aN0M0, with negative margins. The patient had no evidence of recurrence at 1-year follow-up.

PMID:33642230 | DOI:10.1016/j.oooo.2021.01.021

Considerations in Free Flap Reconstruction of the Midface.

Sat, 02/20/2021 - 17:49
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Considerations in Free Flap Reconstruction of the Midface.

Facial Plast Surg. 2021 Feb 15;:

Authors: Hammer D, Vincent AG, Williams F, Ducic Y

Abstract
Midface reconstruction has been a consistent challenge for reconstructive surgeons even with the significant advances in technology and technique achieved over the recent years. A meticulous preoperative assessment of the patient is required to properly assess the defect or anticipated defect, determine proper reconstructive surgical plan, and discuss expected functional and aesthetic outcomes with the patient. For years we have employed local flaps, regional flaps, obturators, alloplastic implants, free flaps, or a combination of the previously mentioned techniques to address complex midface reconstruction. Free flap reconstruction in the midface requires special considerations for the pedicle, flap selection, and flap design to ensure an optimal outcome. The introduction of virtual surgical planning for reconstruction has enhanced patient outcomes to include advances in immediate dental rehabilitation at the time of free flap surgery. Postoperative considerations including quality of life, functional and aesthetic outcomes, and management of complications will also be discussed.

PMID: 33588473 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Immediate Teeth in Fibulas: Planning and Digital Workflow With Point-of-Care 3D Printing.

Fri, 05/15/2020 - 06:13

Immediate Teeth in Fibulas: Planning and Digital Workflow With Point-of-Care 3D Printing.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Apr 14;:

Authors: Williams FC, Hammer DA, Wentland TR, Kim RY

Abstract
PURPOSE: Point-of-care 3-dimensional (3D) printing has become more common in recent years because many hospitals have created 3D printing laboratories. Traditional techniques to fabricate an immediate dental prosthesis for fibula and implant reconstructions have involve outsourcing to dental laboratories. This results in delays, making it suitable only for benign disease. In the present report, we have demonstrated a technique for in-house creation of a 3D printed dental prosthesis for placement of implants at free fibula maxillofacial reconstruction. Our digital method has reduced costs and shortened the interval to surgery compared with traditional laboratory techniques.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients underwent free fibula reconstruction of the mandible or maxilla with immediate implants and immediate teeth. A dental implant-retained restoration was created before surgery for immediate placement at fibula reconstruction. For the first 5 patients, the prosthesis was fabricated by a dental laboratory after virtual surgical planning. For the next 7 patients, the prosthesis was designed by the surgeon and 3D printed via the in-house laboratory. Four of these in-house cases were performed for malignant disease with skin paddles.
RESULTS: All 12 patients had received an immediate implant-retained fixed prosthesis at fibula reconstruction. The time required to generate the in-house 3D printed prostheses was significantly shorter than that required to create the dental laboratory-fabricated prostheses. The costs were also less with the 3D printed prostheses compared with the dental laboratory-fabricated prostheses.
CONCLUSIONS: The digital workflow we have presented eliminates the delay in creating a dental laboratory-fabricated provisional dental prosthesis for fibula and implant reconstruction. This allows for immediate dental restoration for patients with malignant disease previously considered unsuitable owing to the inherent delay required using an offsite dental laboratory. A decrease in cost to create in-house 3D printed prostheses was noted compared with the prostheses fabricated by a dental laboratory. Case selection is critical to predict the soft tissue needs for composite defects.

PMID: 32404269 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Experience With "Jaw in a Day" Technique.

Wed, 04/01/2020 - 08:01
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Experience With "Jaw in a Day" Technique.

J Craniofac Surg. 2020 Mar 27;:

Authors: Sukato DC, Hammer D, Wang W, Shokri T, Williams F, Ducic Y

Abstract
The "Jaw in a Day" (JIAD) technique, first described by Levine and colleagues, establishes immediate functional occlusion through a single-stage maxillomandibular reconstruction with concurrent implant placement and provisional prosthesis delivery. In this study, the authors describe 2 cases exemplifying the reconstructive principles of JIAD. One patient underwent mandibular reconstruction with the JIAD technique and another patient underwent JIAD with an optimized rapid sequence computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) for composite maxillomandibular reconstruction. Immediate implant-borne prosthesis was fixated and all implants osseointegrated into the neomandible. Although the authors' patient outcomes are consistent with the literature, the published reports of JIAD remain limited, and further studies are required to assess the long-term functional and aesthetic outcomes as well as cost-effectiveness of this approach.

PMID: 32224781 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Spindle Cell Sarcoma of the Maxilla: A Rare Entity, Case Report, and Review of the Literature.

Tue, 03/10/2020 - 06:06
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Spindle Cell Sarcoma of the Maxilla: A Rare Entity, Case Report, and Review of the Literature.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Feb 12;:

Authors: Schwitzer D, Kim R, Williams F, Hammer D

Abstract
Spindle cell sarcoma (SCS) is a malignancy, with the most recent Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data citing a total of 250 reported cases occurring in the head and neck. Of these cases, none originated in the maxillofacial hard tissue. To the best of our knowledge, only 2 cases of primary osseous SCS of the maxillofacial region have been reported. These cases were not accounted for in the SEER data. The diagnosis of SCS requires its differentiation from other sarcomas and spindle cell neoplasms. Therefore, a comprehensive review to reinforce its inclusion in oral and maxillofacial surgeons' differential diagnosis for osseous neoplastic pathology is desired. In the present case report, we have described a maxillary SCS in a patient with an initial diagnosis of a spindle cell lesion of uncertain biologic behavior. We reviewed the data for SCS, including the epidemiologic data, diagnostic challenges, clinical and radiographic presentations, prognostic indicators, and treatment.

PMID: 32147227 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Paramedian Forehead Flap.

Wed, 02/05/2020 - 16:25
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Paramedian Forehead Flap.

Atlas Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2020 Mar;28(1):23-28

Authors: Hammer D, Williams F, Kim R

PMID: 32008706 [PubMed - in process]

Role of Free Tissue Transfer in Facial Trauma.

Sat, 11/30/2019 - 06:46
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Role of Free Tissue Transfer in Facial Trauma.

Facial Plast Surg. 2019 Dec;35(6):584-589

Authors: Kim RY, Sokoya M, Williams FC, Shokri T, Ducic Y

Abstract
For large composite traumatic defects of the head and neck, free tissue transfer presents a reconstructive allowing for the reconstitution of both form and function. Furthermore, the ability to provide bulk, soft, and hard tissue, as well as immediate dental rehabilitation, makes free tissue transfer an efficient and attractive option for head and neck reconstruction. Herein, we discuss the utility of free tissue transfer in facial trauma, its problems, complications, and controversies.

PMID: 31783413 [PubMed - in process]

Free-Flap Reconstruction of the Mandible.

Thu, 03/14/2019 - 07:03
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Free-Flap Reconstruction of the Mandible.

Semin Plast Surg. 2019 Feb;33(1):46-53

Authors: Kim RY, Sokoya M, Ducic Y, Williams F

Abstract
Mandible reconstruction has evolved over the years with advances in surgical options and three-dimensional technology. Although nonvascularized bone grafting is still used, vascularized flaps show advantages with immediate reconstruction, the possibility of immediate dental implants, and the ability to reconstruct composite defects of both soft tissue and bone. This article discusses current vascularized techniques for mandible reconstruction. While each reconstructive method has advantages and disadvantages, a defect-based reconstruction focused on full rehabilitation allows surgeons to plan and counsel the patient for the best available reconstruction.

PMID: 30863212 [PubMed]

Free Flap Reconstruction of the Maxilla.

Thu, 03/14/2019 - 07:03
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Free Flap Reconstruction of the Maxilla.

Semin Plast Surg. 2019 Feb;33(1):30-37

Authors: Vincent A, Burkes J, Williams F, Ducic Y

Abstract
Tumors of the maxilla and midface are some of the most difficult to manage, not only in terms of treatment but also in terms of achieving acceptable orofacial reconstruction. Today, free flaps dominate the reconstructive field. Many patients can achieve successful reconstruction after free flap transfer with a return of intelligible speech, a regular diet, and acceptable cosmesis. Herein, the authors review free flap reconstruction of the maxilla, with a focus on the classifications of defects, when obturators are appropriate, types and sources of free flaps, and complications for which to beware.

PMID: 30863210 [PubMed]

Laryngeal Spindle Cell/Pleomorphic Lipoma: A Case Report. An In-Depth Review of the Adipocytic Tumors.

Mon, 03/04/2019 - 05:45

Laryngeal Spindle Cell/Pleomorphic Lipoma: A Case Report. An In-Depth Review of the Adipocytic Tumors.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2019 Feb 07;:

Authors: Burkes JN, Campos L, Williams FC, Kim RY

Abstract
Spindle cell and pleomorphic lipomas (SC/PLs) are a rare form of lipomatous tumors. They typically occur as a slow-growing localized mass in the subcutaneous fatty tissue of the posterior neck, back, and shoulders. This benign variant represents less than 1.5% of all lipomas and is relatively uncommon in the head and neck area. A manifestation in the larynx is even rarer. Unlike other anatomic locations, laryngeal lipomas can pose life-threatening symptoms secondary to acute obstruction of the upper aerodigestive tract. This report presents a case of a large SC/PL of the larynx associated with hoarseness, dysphagia, globus sensation, and neck fullness. The tumor was successfully removed through an anterior transcervical approach with infrahyoid myotomy. The authors review the literature concerning head and neck adipocytic tumors with spindle cells and discuss the difficulties in distinguishing SC/PLs from liposarcomas. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case to be reported in the oral and maxillofacial surgery literature.

PMID: 30826392 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Preoperative Vascular Interventions to Improve Donor Leg Perfusion: A Report of Two Fibula Free Flaps Used in Head and Neck Reconstruction.

Mon, 11/26/2018 - 07:42
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Preoperative Vascular Interventions to Improve Donor Leg Perfusion: A Report of Two Fibula Free Flaps Used in Head and Neck Reconstruction.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Nov 01;:

Authors: Kim RY, Burkes JN, Broker HS, Williams FC

Abstract
PURPOSE: For reconstruction of head and neck defects, the fibula free flap is the first choice at many institutions. The main contraindication for fibula harvest is the lack of 3-vessel runoff, which leads to postoperative vascular compromise of the lower extremity. Atherosclerosis is the most common disease, which can limit the use of this donor site. In general, vascular interventions, which include angioplasty, atherectomy, and stenting, have been used to fix arterial supplies using endovascular methods. The purpose of this study was to report on the outcome of a preliminary cohort of patients after vascular interventions to re-establish vessel patency to allow safe use of the free fibula free flap in head and neck reconstruction.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-institution retrospective case review using electronic medical records was designed. The study population was composed of patients who underwent a fibula free flap procedure for head and neck reconstruction from 2015 through 2017. Inclusion criteria were patients who underwent conventional angiography and required vascular interventions. There were no specific exclusion criteria. The primary outcome of interest was vascular compromise of the donor site. Additional variables of interest included success of reconstruction and perioperative donor or recipient site complications.
RESULTS: Two patients who underwent preoperative vascular interventions of the superficial femoral artery and posterior tibial artery were identified. The mean age was 65 years, and these patients underwent resection and reconstruction for mandibular carcinoma. For these patients, fibula flaps were harvested from the left lower extremity and included skin paddles. The fibula flaps survived and the donor feet maintained adequate perfusion. One patient had poor take of the split-thickness skin graft. No long-term functional deficit was noted.
CONCLUSIONS: Vascular interventions could be a safe method to re-establish vascular flow and 3-vessel runoff for select patients initially unable to undergo fibula free flap harvest.

PMID: 30471961 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

A Case-and-Control, Multisite, Positive Controlled, Prospective Study of the Safety and Effectiveness of Immediate Inferior Alveolar Nerve Processed Nerve Allograft Reconstruction With Ablation of the Mandible for Benign Pathology

Sat, 05/13/2017 - 05:00

J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2017 Dec;75(12):2669-2681. doi: 10.1016/j.joms.2017.04.002. Epub 2017 Apr 13.

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study determined whether immediate reconstruction of the inferior alveolar nerve with a long (>4.5 cm) processed nerve allograft (PNA) in conjunction with simultaneous ablation and reconstruction of the mandible would be effective in safely restoring subjective sensation and achieving functional sensory recovery.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (5 to 70 yr old) requiring resection of the unilateral or bilateral mandible for benign pathology were included. The graft had to be longer than 4.5 cm. Results of sensory nerve tests and 3 different surveys (Direct Path, Numerical Rating Scale, Word Choice) were collected before surgery and at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Safety data were recorded.

RESULTS: Twenty-six patients participated in this study. Three patients served as positive controls (no nerve repair). Five in the repair group and 1 in the positive control group were lost to follow-up. Data during a 1-year period were collected on 18 patients (7 male and 11 female; mean age, 26.4 yr; range, 10 to 64 yr). The mean length of the PNA was 62.7 mm (range, 45 to 70 mm). Seventeen of 18 patients had S4 sensory scores preoperatively and the postoperative score was S4 at 3 months in 3, at 6 months in 3, and at 1 year in 12. Scores for positive control patients never exceeded S2. Numerical rating scales and word choices were not statistically different from presurgical scores at 6 and 12 months. There were no adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS: The PNA is safe and effective when immediately inserted with resection and reconstruction of the mandible: 90% of patients achieved functional sensory recovery and reported similar sensations to preoperative subjective values.

PMID:28495410 | DOI:10.1016/j.joms.2017.04.002