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Neal Richmond, MD

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Effect of Out-of-Hospital Tranexamic Acid vs Placebo on 6-Month Functional Neurologic Outcomes in Patients With Moderate or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

Tue, 09/15/2020 - 21:21
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Effect of Out-of-Hospital Tranexamic Acid vs Placebo on 6-Month Functional Neurologic Outcomes in Patients With Moderate or Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

JAMA. 2020 Sep 08;324(10):961-974

Authors: Rowell SE, Meier EN, McKnight B, Kannas D, May S, Sheehan K, Bulger EM, Idris AH, Christenson J, Morrison LJ, Frascone RJ, Bosarge PL, Colella MR, Johannigman J, Cotton BA, Callum J, McMullan J, Dries DJ, Tibbs B, Richmond NJ, Weisfeldt ML, Tallon JM, Garrett JS, Zielinski MD, Aufderheide TP, Gandhi RR, Schlamp R, Robinson BRH, Jui J, Klein L, Rizoli S, Gamber M, Fleming M, Hwang J, Vincent LE, Williams C, Hendrickson A, Simonson R, Klotz P, Sopko G, Witham W, Ferrara M, Schreiber MA

Abstract
Importance: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability due to trauma. Early administration of tranexamic acid may benefit patients with TBI.
Objective: To determine whether tranexamic acid treatment initiated in the out-of-hospital setting within 2 hours of injury improves neurologic outcome in patients with moderate or severe TBI.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, double-blinded, randomized clinical trial at 20 trauma centers and 39 emergency medical services agencies in the US and Canada from May 2015 to November 2017. Eligible participants (N = 1280) included out-of-hospital patients with TBI aged 15 years or older with Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12 or less and systolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher.
Interventions: Three interventions were evaluated, with treatment initiated within 2 hours of TBI: out-of-hospital tranexamic acid (1 g) bolus and in-hospital tranexamic acid (1 g) 8-hour infusion (bolus maintenance group; n = 312), out-of-hospital tranexamic acid (2 g) bolus and in-hospital placebo 8-hour infusion (bolus only group; n = 345), and out-of-hospital placebo bolus and in-hospital placebo 8-hour infusion (placebo group; n = 309).
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was favorable neurologic function at 6 months (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended score >4 [moderate disability or good recovery]) in the combined tranexamic acid group vs the placebo group. Asymmetric significance thresholds were set at 0.1 for benefit and 0.025 for harm. There were 18 secondary end points, of which 5 are reported in this article: 28-day mortality, 6-month Disability Rating Scale score (range, 0 [no disability] to 30 [death]), progression of intracranial hemorrhage, incidence of seizures, and incidence of thromboembolic events.
Results: Among 1063 participants, a study drug was not administered to 96 randomized participants and 1 participant was excluded, resulting in 966 participants in the analysis population (mean age, 42 years; 255 [74%] male participants; mean Glasgow Coma Scale score, 8). Of these participants, 819 (84.8%) were available for primary outcome analysis at 6-month follow-up. The primary outcome occurred in 65% of patients in the tranexamic acid groups vs 62% in the placebo group (difference, 3.5%; [90% 1-sided confidence limit for benefit, -0.9%]; P = .16; [97.5% 1-sided confidence limit for harm, 10.2%]; P = .84). There was no statistically significant difference in 28-day mortality between the tranexamic acid groups vs the placebo group (14% vs 17%; difference, -2.9% [95% CI, -7.9% to 2.1%]; P = .26), 6-month Disability Rating Scale score (6.8 vs 7.6; difference, -0.9 [95% CI, -2.5 to 0.7]; P = .29), or progression of intracranial hemorrhage (16% vs 20%; difference, -5.4% [95% CI, -12.8% to 2.1%]; P = .16).
Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with moderate to severe TBI, out-of-hospital tranexamic acid administration within 2 hours of injury compared with placebo did not significantly improve 6-month neurologic outcome as measured by the Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01990768.

PMID: 32897344 [PubMed - in process]

TXA Administration in the Field Does Not Affect Admission TEG after Traumatic Brain Injury.

Tue, 09/08/2020 - 18:57
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TXA Administration in the Field Does Not Affect Admission TEG after Traumatic Brain Injury.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2020 Aug 28;:

Authors: Dixon AL, McCully BH, Rick EA, Dewey E, Farrell DH, Morrison LJ, McMullan J, Robinson BRH, Callum J, Tibbs B, Dries DJ, Jui J, Gandhi RR, Garrett JS, Weisfeldt ML, Wade CE, Aufderheide TP, Frascone RJ, Tallon JM, Kannas D, Williams C, Rowell SE, Schreiber MA, McKnight B, Meier EN, May S, Sheehan K, Bulger EM, Idris AH, Christenson J, Bosarge PL, Colella MR, Johannigman J, Cotton BA, Richmond NJ, Zielinski MD, Schlamp R, Klein L, Rizoli S, Gamber M, Fleming M, Hwang J, Vincent LE, Hendrickson A, Simonson R, Klotz P, Ferrara M, Sopko G, Witham W

Abstract
BACKGROUND: No FDA-approved medication improves outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A forthcoming clinical trial that evaluated the effects of two prehospital tranexamic acid (TXA) dosing strategies compared with placebo demonstrated no differences in thromboelastography (TEG) values. We proposed to explore the impact of TXA on markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in patients with moderate to severe TBI.
METHODS: Data were extracted from a placebo-controlled clinical trial in which patients ≥15 years old with TBI (Glascow Coma Scale 3-12) and systolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg were randomized prehospital to receive placebo bolus/placebo infusion (Placebo), 1 gram (g) TXA bolus/1g TXA infusion (Bolus Maintenance [BM]); or 2g TXA bolus/placebo infusion (Bolus Only [BO]). TEG was performed and coagulation measures including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), international ratio (INR), fibrinogen, D-dimer, plasmin anti-plasmin (PAP), thrombin anti-thrombin (TAT), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were quantified at admission and six hours later.
RESULTS: Of 966 patients receiving study drug, 700 had labs drawn at admission and six hours later. There were no statistically significant differences in TEG values, including LY30, between groups (p>0.05). No differences between PT, aPTT, INR, fibrinogen, TAT, tPA, and PAI-1 were demonstrated across treatment groups. Concentrations of D-dimer in TXA treatment groups were less than placebo at six hours (p<0.001). Concentrations of PAP were less in TXA treatment groups than placebo on admission (p<0.001) and six hours (p=0.02). No differences in D-dimer and PAP were observed between BM and BO.
CONCLUSION: While D-dimer and PAP levels reflect a lower degree of fibrinolysis following prehospital administration of TXA when compared to placebo in a large prehospital trial of patients with TBI, TEG obtained on admission and six hours later did not demonstrate any differences in fibrinolysis between the two TXA dosing regimens and placebo.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: III; Diagnostic.

PMID: 32868544 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Relationship Between Duration of Targeted Temperature Management, Ischemic Interval, and Good Functional Outcome From Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

Sat, 12/14/2019 - 05:19
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Relationship Between Duration of Targeted Temperature Management, Ischemic Interval, and Good Functional Outcome From Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

Crit Care Med. 2019 Dec 10;:

Authors: Sawyer KN, Humbert A, Leroux BG, Nichol G, Kudenchuk PJ, Daya MR, Grunau B, Wang HE, Ornato JP, Rittenberger JC, Aufderheide TP, Wittwer L, Colella MR, Austin M, Kawano T, Egan D, Richmond N, Vithalani VD, Scales D, Baker AJ, Morrison LJ, Vilke GM, Kurz MC, Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium

Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Tailoring hypothermia duration to ischemia duration may improve outcome from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We investigated the association between the hypothermia/ischemia ratio and functional outcome in a secondary analysis of data from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo Study trial.
DESIGN: Cohort study of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients screened for Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium-Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo Study.
SETTING: Multicenter study across North America.
PATIENTS: Adult, nontraumatic, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients screened for Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium-Amiodarone, Lidocaine, or Placebo Study who survived to hospital admission and received targeted temperature management between May 2012 and October 2015.
INTERVENTIONS: Targeted temperature management in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We defined hypothermia/ischemia ratio as total targeted temperature management time (initiation through rewarming) divided by calculated total ischemia time (approximate time of arrest [9-1-1 call or emergency medical services-witnessed] to return of spontaneous circulation).
MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The primary outcome was hospital survival with good functional status (modified Rankin Score, 0-3) at hospital discharge. We fitted logistic regression models to estimate the association between hypothermia/ischemia ratio and the primary outcome, adjusting for demographics, arrest characteristics, and Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium enrolling site. A total of 3,429 patients were eligible for inclusion, of whom 36.2% were discharged with good functional outcome. Patients had a mean age of 62.0 years (SD, 15.8), with 69.7% male, and 58.0% receiving lay-rescuer cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Median time to return of spontaneous circulation was 21.1 minutes (interquartile range, 16.1-26.9), and median duration of targeted temperature management was 32.9 hours (interquartile range, 23.7-37.8). A total of 2,579 had complete data and were included in adjusted regression analyses. After adjustment for patient characteristics and Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium site, a greater hypothermia/ischemia ratio was associated with increased survival with good functional outcome (odds ratio, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.82-2.23). This relationship, however, appears to be primarily driven by time to return of spontaneous circulation in this patient cohort.
CONCLUSIONS: Although a larger hypothermia/ischemia ratio was associated with good functional outcome after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in this cohort, this association is primarily driven by duration of time to return of spontaneous circulation. Tailoring duration of targeted temperature management based on duration of time to return of spontaneous circulation or patient characteristics requires prospective study.

PMID: 31821187 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Effect of a Strategy of Initial Laryngeal Tube Insertion vs Endotracheal Intubation on 72-Hour Survival in Adults With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Wed, 01/30/2019 - 08:30
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Effect of a Strategy of Initial Laryngeal Tube Insertion vs Endotracheal Intubation on 72-Hour Survival in Adults With Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA. 2018 08 28;320(8):769-778

Authors: Wang HE, Schmicker RH, Daya MR, Stephens SW, Idris AH, Carlson JN, Colella MR, Herren H, Hansen M, Richmond NJ, Puyana JCJ, Aufderheide TP, Gray RE, Gray PC, Verkest M, Owens PC, Brienza AM, Sternig KJ, May SJ, Sopko GR, Weisfeldt ML, Nichol G

Abstract
Importance: Emergency medical services (EMS) commonly perform endotracheal intubation (ETI) or insertion of supraglottic airways, such as the laryngeal tube (LT), on patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). The optimal method for OHCA advanced airway management is unknown.
Objective: To compare the effectiveness of a strategy of initial LT insertion vs initial ETI in adults with OHCA.
Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter pragmatic cluster-crossover clinical trial involving EMS agencies from the Resuscitation Outcomes Consortium. The trial included 3004 adults with OHCA and anticipated need for advanced airway management who were enrolled from December 1, 2015, to November 4, 2017. The final date of follow-up was November 10, 2017.
Interventions: Twenty-seven EMS agencies were randomized in 13 clusters to initial airway management strategy with LT (n = 1505 patients) or ETI (n = 1499 patients), with crossover to the alternate strategy at 3- to 5-month intervals.
Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 72-hour survival. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation, survival to hospital discharge, favorable neurological status at hospital discharge (Modified Rankin Scale score ≤3), and key adverse events.
Results: Among 3004 enrolled patients (median [interquartile range] age, 64 [53-76] years, 1829 [60.9%] men), 3000 were included in the primary analysis. Rates of initial airway success were 90.3% with LT and 51.6% with ETI. Seventy-two hour survival was 18.3% in the LT group vs 15.4% in the ETI group (adjusted difference, 2.9% [95% CI, 0.2%-5.6%]; P = .04). Secondary outcomes in the LT group vs ETI group were return of spontaneous circulation (27.9% vs 24.3%; adjusted difference, 3.6% [95% CI, 0.3%-6.8%]; P = .03); hospital survival (10.8% vs 8.1%; adjusted difference, 2.7% [95% CI, 0.6%-4.8%]; P = .01); and favorable neurological status at discharge (7.1% vs 5.0%; adjusted difference, 2.1% [95% CI, 0.3%-3.8%]; P = .02). There were no significant differences in oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal injury (0.2% vs 0.3%), airway swelling (1.1% vs 1.0%), or pneumonia or pneumonitis (26.1% vs 22.3%).
Conclusions and Relevance: Among adults with OHCA, a strategy of initial LT insertion was associated with significantly greater 72-hour survival compared with a strategy of initial ETI. These findings suggest that LT insertion may be considered as an initial airway management strategy in patients with OHCA, but limitations of the pragmatic design, practice setting, and ETI performance characteristics suggest that further research is warranted.
Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02419573.

PMID: 30167699 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]