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Hao Wang, MD

Multi-institutional intervention to improve patient perception of physician empathy in emergency care

Wed, 12/22/2021 - 05:00

Emerg Med J. 2021 Dec 21:emermed-2020-210757. doi: 10.1136/emermed-2020-210757. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physician empathy has been linked to increased patient satisfaction, improved patient outcomes and reduced provider burnout. Our objective was to test the effectiveness of an educational intervention to improve physician empathy and trust in the ED setting.

METHODS: Physician participants from six emergency medicine residencies in the US were studied from 2018 to 2019 using a pre-post, quasi-experimental non-equivalent control group design with randomisation at the site level. Intervention participants at three hospitals received an educational intervention, guided by acognitivemap (the 'empathy circle'). This intervention was further emphasised by the use of motivational texts delivered to participants throughout the course of the study. The primary outcome was change in E patient perception of resident empathy (Jefferson scale of patient perception of physician empathy (JSPPPE) and Trust in Physicians Scale (Tips)) before (T1) and 3-6 months later (T2).

RESULTS: Data were collected for 221 residents (postgraduate year 1-4.) In controls, the mean (SD) JSPPPE scores at T1 and T2 were 29 (3.8) and 29 (4.0), respectively (mean difference 0.8, 95% CI: -0.7 to 2.4, p=0.20, paired t-test). In the intervention group, the JSPPPE scores at T1 and T2 were 28 (4.4) and 30 (4.0), respectively (mean difference 1.4, 95% CI: 0.0 to 2.8, p=0.08). In controls, the TIPS at T1 was 65 (6.3) and T2 was 66 (5.8) (mean difference -0.1, 95% CI: -3.8 to 3.6, p=0.35). In the intervention group, the TIPS at T1 was 63 (6.9) and T2 was 66 (6.3) (mean difference 2.4, 95% CI: 0.2 to 4.5, p=0.007). Hierarchical regression revealed no effect of time×group interaction for JSPPPE (p=0.71) nor TIPS (p=0.16).

CONCLUSION: An educational intervention with the addition of text reminders designed to increase empathic behaviour was not associated with a change in patient-perceived empathy, but was associated with a modest improvement in trust in physicians.

PMID:34933917 | DOI:10.1136/emermed-2020-210757

Causal Effect Analysis of Demographic Concordance of Physician Trust and Respect in an Emergency Care Setting

Fri, 11/26/2021 - 05:00

Open Access Emerg Med. 2021 Nov 19;13:503-509. doi: 10.2147/OAEM.S334495. eCollection 2021.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Patient perceptions of physician trust and respect are important factors for patient satisfaction evaluations. However, perceptions are subjective by nature and can be affected by patient and physician demographic characteristics. We aim to determine the causal effect on patient-physician demographic concordance and patient perceptions of physician trust and respect in an emergency care setting.

METHODS: We performed a causal effect analysis in an observational study setting. A near-real-time patient satisfaction survey was sent via telephone to patients within 72 h of discharge from an emergency department (ED). Patient-trust-physician (PTP) and physician-show-respect (PSR) scores were measured. Patient and physician demographics (age, gender, race, and ethnicity) were matched. Causal effect was analyzed to determine the direct effect of patient-physician demographic concordance on PTP/PSR scores.

RESULTS: We enrolled 1815 patients. The treatment effect of patient-physician age concordance on PTP scores was -0.119 (p = 0.036). Other treatment effect of patient-physician demographic concordance on patient perception of physician trust and respect ranged from -0.02 to -0.2 (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Patient-physician age concordance may cause a negative effect on patient perception of physician trust. Otherwise, patient-physician demographic concordance has no effect on patient perceptions of physician trust and respect.

PMID:34824553 | PMC:PMC8610774 | DOI:10.2147/OAEM.S334495

The Association of Mobile Health Applications with Self-Management Behaviors among Adults with Chronic Conditions in the United States

Wed, 10/13/2021 - 05:00

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Sep 30;18(19):10351. doi: 10.3390/ijerph181910351.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mobile applications related to health and wellness (mHealth apps) are widely used to self-manage chronic conditions. However, research on whether mHealth apps facilitate self-management behaviors of individuals with chronic conditions is sparse. We aimed to evaluate the association of mHealth apps with different types of self-management behaviors among patients with chronic diseases in the United States.

METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study. We used data from adult participants (unweighted n = 2340) of the Health Information National Trends Survey in 2018 and 2019. We identified three self-management behaviors: (1) resource utilization using electronic personal health records; (2) treatment discussions with healthcare providers; and (3) making healthcare decisions. We analyzed the association of mHealth apps to self-management behaviors with multivariable logistic and ordinal regressions.

RESULTS: Overall, 59.8% of adults (unweighted number = 1327) used mHealth apps. Adults using mHealth apps were more likely to use personal health records (AOR = 3.11, 95% CI 2.26-4.28), contact healthcare providers using technology (AOR = 2.70, 95% CI 1.93-3.78), and make decisions on chronic disease management (AOR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.93-3.49). The mHealth apps were associated with higher levels of self-management involvement (AOR = 3.53, 95% CI 2.63-4.72).

CONCLUSION: Among individuals with chronic conditions, having mHealth apps was associated with positive self-management behaviors.

PMID:34639651 | PMC:PMC8507726 | DOI:10.3390/ijerph181910351

Mortality Variations of COVID-19 from Different Hospital Settings During Different Pandemic Phases: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

Tue, 09/21/2021 - 05:00

West J Emerg Med. 2021 Sep 2;22(5):1051-1059. doi: 10.5811/westjem.2021.5.52583.

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Diverse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortalities have been reported but focused on identifying susceptible patients at risk of more severe disease or death. This study aims to investigate the mortality variations of COVID-19 from different hospital settings during different pandemic phases.

METHODS: We retrospectively included adult (≥18 years) patients who visited emergency departments (ED) of five hospitals in the state of Texas and who were diagnosed with COVID-19 between March-November 2020. The included hospitals were dichotomized into urban and suburban based on their geographic location. The primary outcome was mortality that occurred either during hospital admission or within 30 days after the index ED visit. We used multivariable logistic regression to investigate the associations between independent variables and outcome. Generalized additive models were employed to explore the mortality variation during different pandemic phases.

RESULTS: A total of 1,788 adult patients who tested positive for COVID-19 were included in the study. The median patient age was 54.6 years, and 897 (50%) patients were male. Urban hospitals saw approximately 59.5% of the total patients. A total of 197 patients died after the index ED visit. The analysis indicated visits to the urban hospitals (odds ratio [OR] 2.14, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41, 3.23), from March to April (OR 2.04, 95% CI, 1.08, 3.86), and from August to November (OR 2.15, 95% CI, 1.37, 3.38) were positively associated with mortality.

CONCLUSION: Visits to the urban hospitals were associated with a higher risk of mortality in patients with COVID-19 when compared to visits to the suburban hospitals. The mortality risk rebounded and showed significant difference between urban and suburban hospitals since August 2020. Optimal allocation of medical resources may be necessary to bridge this gap in the foreseeable future.

PMID:34546880 | DOI:10.5811/westjem.2021.5.52583

The influence of patient perception of physician empathy on patient satisfaction among attending physicians working with residents in an emergent care setting

Wed, 08/25/2021 - 05:00

Health Sci Rep. 2021 Aug 17;4(3):e337. doi: 10.1002/hsr2.337. eCollection 2021 Sep.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether the patient's perception of attending physician empathy and the patient's satisfaction can be affected when attending physicians work alongside residents. We aim to determine the influence residents may have on (1) patient perception of attending physician empathy and (2) patient satisfaction as it relates to their respective attending physicians.

METHODS: This is a prospective single-center observational study. Patient perception of physician empathy was measured using Jefferson Scale of Patient Perception of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE) in both attendings and residents in the Emergency Department. Patient satisfaction with attending physicians and residents was measured by real-time patient satisfaction survey. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed to determine the association between patient satisfaction and JSPPPE after patient demographics, attending physician different experience, and residents with different years of training were adjusted.

RESULTS: A total of 351 patients were enrolled. Mean JSPPPE scores were 30.1 among attending working alone, 30.1 in attending working with PGY-1 EM residents, 29.6 in attending working with PGY-2, and 27.8 in attending working with PGY-3 (p < 0.05). Strong correlation occurred between attending JSPPPE score and patient satisfaction to attending physicians (ρ > 0.5). The adjusted odds ratio was 1.32 (95% CI 1.23-1.41, p < 0.001) on attending's JSPPPE score predicting patient satisfaction to the attending physicians. However, there were no significant differences on patient satisfaction among four different groups.

CONCLUSION: Empathy has strong correlation with patient satisfaction. Decreased patient perception of attending physician empathy was found when working with senior residents in comparison to working alone or with junior residents.

PMID:34430711 | PMC:PMC8369944 | DOI:10.1002/hsr2.337

A Simplified Comorbidity Evaluation Predicting Clinical Outcomes Among Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019

Wed, 05/19/2021 - 05:00

J Clin Med Res. 2021 Apr;13(4):237-244. doi: 10.14740/jocmr4476. Epub 2021 Apr 27.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have shown a range of clinical outcomes. Previous studies have reported that patient comorbidities are predictive of worse clinical outcomes, especially when patients have multiple chronic diseases. We aim to: 1) derive a simplified comorbidity evaluation and determine its accuracy of predicting clinical outcomes (i.e., hospital admission, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ventilation, and in-hospital mortality); and 2) determine its performance accuracy in comparison to well-established comorbidity indexes.

METHODS: This was a single-center retrospective observational study. We enrolled all emergency department (ED) patients with COVID-19 from March 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020. A simplified comorbidity evaluation (COVID-related high-risk chronic condition (CCC)) was derived to predict different clinical outcomes using multivariate logistic regressions. In addition, chronic diseases included in the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI) were scored, and its accuracy of predicting COVID-19 clinical outcomes was also compared with the CCC.

RESULTS: Data were retrieved from 90,549 ED patient visits during the study period, among which 3,864 patients were COVID-19 positive. Forty-seven point nine percent (1,851/3,864) were admitted to the hospital, 9.4% (364) patients were admitted to the ICU, 6.2% (238) received invasive mechanical ventilation, and 4.6% (177) patients died in the hospital. The CCC evaluation correlated well with the four studied clinical outcomes. The adjusted odds ratios of predicting in-hospital death from CCC was 2.84 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.81 - 4.45, P < 0.001). C-statistics of CCC predicting in-hospital all-cause mortality was 0.73 (0.69 - 0.76), similar to those of the CCI's (0.72) and ECI's (0.71, P = 0.0513).

CONCLUSIONS: CCC can accurately predict clinical outcomes among patients with COVID-19. Its performance accuracies for such predictions are not inferior to those of the CCI or ECI's.

PMID:34007362 | PMC:PMC8110217 | DOI:10.14740/jocmr4476

Role of HEART score in evaluating clinical outcomes among emergency department patients with different ethnicities

Fri, 04/30/2021 - 05:00

J Int Med Res. 2021 Apr;49(4):3000605211010638. doi: 10.1177/03000605211010638.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the role of the HEART (history, EKG, age, risk factors, and troponin) score in the evaluation of six clinical outcomes among three groups of patients in the emergency department (ED).

METHODS: We performed a retrospective observational study among three ED patient groups including White, Black, and Hispanic patients. ED providers used the HEART score to assess the need for patient hospital admission and for emergent cardiac imaging tests (CITs). HEART scores were measured using classification accuracy rates. Performance accuracies were measured in terms of HEART score in relation to four clinical outcomes (positive findings of CITs, ED returns, hospital readmissions, and 30-day major adverse cardiac events [MACE]).

RESULTS: A high classification accuracy rate (87%) was found for use of the HEART score to determine hospital admission. HEART scores showed moderate accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.66-0.78) in predicting results of emergent CITs, 30-day hospital readmissions, and 30-day MACE outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS: Providers adhered to use of the HEART score to determine hospital admission. The HEART score may be associated with emergent CIT findings, 30-day hospital readmissions, and 30-day MACE outcomes, with no differences among White, Black, and Hispanic patient populations.

PMID:33926275 | DOI:10.1177/03000605211010638

Association between burnout and wellness culture among emergency medicine providers

Mon, 04/12/2021 - 05:00

Clin Exp Emerg Med. 2021 Mar;8(1):55-64. doi: 10.15441/ceem.20.074. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Burnout is a common occurrence among healthcare providers and has been associated with provider wellness culture. However, this association has not been extensively studied among emergency medicine (EM) providers. We aim to determine the association between EM provider burnout and their culture of wellness, and to elicit the independent wellness culture domains most predictive of burnout prevention.

METHODS: This was a multi-center observational study. We enrolled EM physicians and advanced practice providers from sixteen different emergency departments (EDs). Provider wellness culture and burnout surveys were performed. The wellness culture domains included in this study are personal/organizational value alignment, provider appreciation, leadership quality, self-controlled scheduling, peer support, and family support. Correlations between each wellness culture domain and burnout were analyzed by Pearson correlation co-efficiency, and their associations were measured by multivariate logistic regression with adjustments of other confounders.

RESULTS: A total of 242 ED provider surveys were entered for final analysis. The overall burnout rate was 54% (130/242). Moderate correlations were found between burnout and two wellness culture domains (value alignment: r=-0.43, P<0.001 and provider appreciation: r=-0.49, P<0.001). The adjusted odds ratio of provider appreciation associated with burnout was 0.44 (95% confidence interval, 0.25-0.77; P=0.004), adjusted odds ratio of family support was 0.67 (95% confidence interval, 0.48-0.95; P=0.025).

CONCLUSION: ED providers have a relatively high burnout rate. Provider burnout might have certain associations with wellness culture domains. Provider appreciation and family support seem to play important roles in burnout protection.

PMID:33845524 | DOI:10.15441/ceem.20.074

Community Disparities in Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest Care and Outcomes in Texas

Fri, 04/02/2021 - 05:00

Resuscitation. 2021 Mar 30:S0300-9572(21)00125-8. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.03.021. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Large racial and socioeconomic inequalities exist for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) care and outcomes. We sought to characterize racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in OHCA care and outcomes in Texas.

METHODS: We analyzed 2014-2018 Texas-Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival (CARES) data. Using census tracts, we defined race/ethnicity neighborhoods based on majority race/ethnicity composition: non-Hispanic/Latino white, non-Hispanic/Latino black, and Hispanic/Latino. We also stratified neighborhoods into socioeconomic categories: above and below the median for household income, employment rate, and high school graduation. We defined outcomes as bystander CPR rates, public bystander AED use, and survival to hospital discharge. Using mixed models, we analyzed the associations between outcomes and neighborhood (1) racial/ethnic categories and (2) socioeconomic categories.

RESULTS: We included data on 18,488 OHCAs. Relative to white neighborhoods, black neighborhoods had lower rates of AED use (OR 0.3, CI 0.2-0.4), and Hispanic/Latino neighborhoods had lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.7, CI 0.6-0.8), AED use (OR 0.4, CI 0.3-0.6), and survival (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.8). Lower income was associated with a lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.8), AED use (OR 0.5, CI 0.4-0.8), and survival (OR 0.9, CI 0.9-0.98). Lower high school graduation was associated with a lower rate of bystander CPR (OR 0.8, CI 0.7-0.9) and AED use (OR 0.6, CI 0.4-0.9). Higher unemployment was associated with lower rates of bystander CPR (OR 0.9, CI 0.8-0.94) and AED use (OR 0.7, CI 0.5-0.99).

CONCLUSION: Minority and poor neighborhoods in Texas experience large and unacceptable disparities in OHCA bystander response and outcomes.

PMID:33798624 | DOI:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2021.03.021

Community Variations in Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Care and Outcomes in Texas

Mon, 03/29/2021 - 05:00

Prehosp Emerg Care. 2021 Mar 29:1-10. doi: 10.1080/10903127.2021.1907007. Online ahead of print.

ABSTRACT

BackgroundLarge and unacceptable variation exists in cardiac resuscitation care and outcomes across communities. Texas is the second most populous state in the US with wide variation in community and emergency response infrastructure. We utilized the Texas-CARES registry to perform the first Texas state analysis of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in Texas, evaluating for variations in incidence, care, and outcomes.MethodsWe analyzed the Texas-CARES registry, including all adult, non-traumatic OHCAs from 1/1/2014 through 12/31/2018. We analyzed the incidence and characteristics of OHCA care and outcome, overall and stratified by community. Utilizing mixed models accounting for clustering by community, we characterized variations in bystander CPR, bystander AED in public locations, and survival to hospital discharge across communities, adjusting for age, gender, race, location of arrest, and rate of witnessed arrest (bystander and 911 responder witnessed).ResultsThere were a total of 26,847 (5,369 per year) OHCAs from 13 communities; median 2,762 per community (IQR 444-2,767, min 136, max 9161). Texas care and outcome characteristics were: bystander CPR (43.3%), bystander AED use (9.1%), survival to discharge (9.1%), and survival with good neurological outcomes (4.0%). Bystander CPR rate ranged from 19.2% to 55.0%, and there were five communities above and five below the adjusted 95% confidence interval. Bystander AED use ranged from 0% to 19.5%, and there was one community below the adjusted 95% confidence interval. Survival to hospital discharge ranged from 6.7% to 14.0%, and there were three communities above and two below the adjusted 95% confidence interval.ConclusionWhile overall OHCA care and outcomes were similar in Texas compared to national averages, bystander CPR, bystander AED use, and survival varied widely across communities in Texas. These variations signal opportunities to improve OHCA care and outcomes in Texas.

PMID:33779479 | DOI:10.1080/10903127.2021.1907007

Can HEART Criteria Be Used as an Ideal Tool for Multilayer Clinical Outcome Predictions?

Wed, 01/27/2021 - 22:32
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Can HEART Criteria Be Used as an Ideal Tool for Multilayer Clinical Outcome Predictions?

Ann Emerg Med. 2021 Feb;77(2):277-278

Authors: Schrader CD, Meyering SH, Wang H

PMID: 33487324 [PubMed - in process]

The Role of Using HEART Score to Risk Stratify Chest Pain Among Emergency Department High Utilizers.

Wed, 12/30/2020 - 18:30
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The Role of Using HEART Score to Risk Stratify Chest Pain Among Emergency Department High Utilizers.

High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev. 2020 Dec 28;:

Authors: Schrader CD, Meyering SH, Kumar D, Alanis N, D'Etienne JP, Shaikh S, Vo V, Kamaria AR, Huettner N, Wang H

Abstract
The HEART score is used to effectively risk stratify undifferentiated chest pain patients in the Emergency Department (ED). It is unclear whether such risk stratification can be applied among ED high utilizers. We aim to determine the efficacy and safety of using the HEART score to predict 30-day short-term major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in ED high utilizers. We conducted a retrospective, observational study in which ED high utilizers were defined as patients who had four or more ED visits within the past 12 months. ED high utilizers presenting at the study ED with chest pain were enrolled. Patients in which the HEART score was utilized were placed in the HEART group and patients with no HEART scores documented were placed to the usual care group. Hospital admissions and cardiac stress tests performed during the index hospitalizations, and 30-day MACE rates were analyzed and compared between the HEART and usual care groups. From January 1, 2017 to December 31, 2019, a total of 8,315 patient visits from ED high utilizers were enrolled. In the HEART group, 49% of ED visits were admitted with 20% receiving stress tests. A 30-day MACE outcome occurred among 1.4% of visits. In the usual care group, 44% of ED visits were admitted, with only 9% receiving index stress tests and a 1.5% of 30-day MACE occurrence (p=0.727). The study showed that similar short-term MACE outcomes occurred between patients using HEART scores and usual care to risk stratify chest pain among ED high utilizers.

PMID: 33369723 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Synergistic effects of emergency physician empathy and burnout on patient satisfaction: a prospective observational study.

Wed, 12/02/2020 - 12:47
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Synergistic effects of emergency physician empathy and burnout on patient satisfaction: a prospective observational study.

Emerg Med J. 2020 Nov 25;:

Authors: Byrd J, Knowles H, Moore S, Acker V, Bell S, Alanis N, Zhou Y, d'Etienne JP, Kline JA, Wang H

Abstract
BACKGROUND: Physician empathy and burnout have been shown to be independently associated with patient satisfaction. However, their correlations were uncertain in previous studies. We aimed to determine correlations among empathy, burnout, and patient satisfaction, and further analyse interactions among these factors.
METHOD: A single centre prospective observational study was conducted from December 2018 to August 2019 at JPS Health Network, USA. Emergency physician (EP) self-assessed empathy and burnout were measured by the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE) and the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI) separately. We assessed patient perception of physician empathy and patient satisfaction with their treating physician by the Jefferson Scale of Patient Perception of Physician Empathy and a patient assessed satisfaction survey. Spearman's correlation was used to determine associations among JSE, patient assessed physician empathy, CBI and patient satisfaction. Additionally, JSE, patient assessed physician empathy and CBI predictive of patient satisfaction were measured by multivariate logistic regression analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 28 EPs and 423 patients were enrolled. Patient satisfaction had a weak correlation with JSE (ρ=0.11) but showed a strong correlation with patient assessed physician empathy (ρ=0.60). CBI showed no correlation with patient satisfaction (ρ<0.1). However, when JSE, patient assessed physician empathy and CBI were analysed together in relation to patient satisfaction, adjusted odds ratios (AOR) was 3.85 (95% CI 1.36 to 10.88) with high patient assessed physician empathy alone; AOR was 7.17 (2.62-19.67) when high patient assessed physician empathy was combined with low CBI; and AOR was 8.37 (3.07-22.83) when high patient assessed physician empathy, low CBI and high JSE were combined.
CONCLUSION: Patient assessed physician empathy had a strong positive correlation with patient satisfaction. Moreover, higher patient satisfaction was achieved from EPs of high patient assessed physician empathy, low CBI and high JSE, indicating a positive synergistic effect. These findings suggest different interventions might be applied to EPs of different wellness features to maximise patient satisfaction.

PMID: 33239313 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Do We Need a Modified HEART Score to Risk Stratify Chest Pain Patients in the Emergency Department?

Wed, 11/18/2020 - 07:52
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Do We Need a Modified HEART Score to Risk Stratify Chest Pain Patients in the Emergency Department?

Am J Cardiol. 2020 09 15;131:134

Authors: Schrader CD, Meyering S, Wang H

PMID: 32718556 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Worsening Renal Function After Diuresis Among Heart Failure Patients with Preserved Ejection Fraction --- A Dilemma to Heart Failure Management.

Wed, 11/11/2020 - 07:34
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Worsening Renal Function After Diuresis Among Heart Failure Patients with Preserved Ejection Fraction --- A Dilemma to Heart Failure Management.

Eur J Heart Fail. 2020 Nov 08;:

Authors: Starwalt JL, Ho AF, Wang H

PMID: 33161637 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

The value of using the HEART score among cocaine associated chest pain patients in the emergency department - A closer look.

Wed, 11/11/2020 - 07:34
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The value of using the HEART score among cocaine associated chest pain patients in the emergency department - A closer look.

Am J Emerg Med. 2020 Oct 29;:

Authors: Holmes KA, Posey RA, Wang H

PMID: 33148470 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Dedicated homeless clinics reduce inappropriate emergency department utilization.

Wed, 11/11/2020 - 07:34
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Dedicated homeless clinics reduce inappropriate emergency department utilization.

J Am Coll Emerg Physicians Open. 2020 Oct;1(5):829-836

Authors: Holmes CT, Holmes KA, MacDonald A, Lonergan FR, Hunt JJ, Shaikh S, Cheeti R, D'Etienne JP, Zenarosa NR, Wang H

Abstract
Background: The homeless patient population is known to have a high occurrence of inappropriate emergency department (ED) utilization. The study hospital initiated a dedicated homeless clinic targeting patients experiencing homelessness with a combination of special features. We aim to determine whether this mode of care can reduce inappropriate ED utilization among homeless patients.
Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study from July 1, 2017 to Dec 31, 2017. The study enrolled all homeless patients who visited any hospital regular clinic, dedicated homeless clinic, and ED at least once during the study period. ED homeless patients were divided into four groups (A: no clinic visits; B: those who only visited hospital regular clinic; C: those who only visited dedicated homeless clinic; and D: those who visited both hospital regular clinic and dedicated homeless clinic). The New York University algorithm was used to determine appropriate ED utilization. We compared inappropriate ED utilization among patients from these groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the risks of different clinical visits in association with inappropriate ED utilization.
Results: A total of 16,323 clinic and 8511 ED visits occurred among 5022 unique homeless patients, in which 2450 unique patients were seen in hospital regular clinic, 784 patients in dedicated homeless clinic, 688 patients in both hospital regular clinic and dedicated homeless clinic, and 1110 patients with no clinic visits. Twenty-nine percent (230/784) of patients from dedicated homeless clinic utilized the ED, among which 21% (175/844) of their ED visits were considered inappropriate. In contrast, 40% of patients from hospital regular clinic utilized the ED, among which 29% were inappropriate (P < 0.001). The adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 0.61 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50-0.74, P < 0.001) on dedicated homeless clinic predicting inappropriate ED visits in multivariate logistic regression.
Conclusion: Implementing a dedicated homeless clinic with these features can reduce ED inappropriate utilization among patients experiencing homelessness.

PMID: 33145527 [PubMed]

Perception of Physician Empathy Varies With Educational Level and Gender of Patients Undergoing Low-Yield Computerized Tomographic Imaging.

Tue, 08/25/2020 - 13:09
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Perception of Physician Empathy Varies With Educational Level and Gender of Patients Undergoing Low-Yield Computerized Tomographic Imaging.

J Patient Exp. 2020 Jun;7(3):386-394

Authors: Kline JA, Lin MP, Hall CL, Puskarich MA, Dehon E, Kuehl DR, Wang RC, Hess EP, Runyon MS, Wang H, Courtney DM

Abstract
Objective: Lack of empathic communication between providers and patients may contribute to low value diagnostic testing in emergency care. Accordingly, we measured the perception of physician empathy and trust in patients undergoing low-value computed tomography (CT) in the emergency department (ED).
Methods: Multicenter study of ED patients undergoing CT scanning, acknowledged by ordering physicians as unlikely to show an emergent condition. Near the end of their visit, patients completed the Jefferson Scale of Patient Perception of Physician Empathy (JSPPPE), Trust in Physicians Survey (TIPS), and the Group Based Medical Mistrust Scale (GBMMS). We stratified results by patient demographics including gender, race, and education.
Results: We enrolled 305 participants across 9 sites with diverse geographic, racial, and ethnic representation. The median scores (interquartile ranges) for the JSPPPE, TIPS, and GBMMS for all patients were 29 (24-33.5), 55 (47-62), and 18 (12-29). Compared with white patients, nonwhite patients had similar JSPPPE and TIPS scores but had higher (worse) GBMMS scores. Females had significantly lower JSPPPE and TIPS scores than males, and scores were lower (worse) in females with college degrees. Patients in the lowest tier of educational status had the highest (better) JSPPPE and TIPS scores. Scores were invariant with physician characteristics.
Conclusion: Among patients undergoing low-value CT scanning in the ED, the degree of patient perception of physician empathy and trust varied based on the patients' level of education and gender. Given this variation, an intervention to increase patient perception of physician empathy should contain individualized strategies to address these subgroups, rather than a one-size-fits-all approach.

PMID: 32821799 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Mortality association between obesity and pneumonia using a dual restricted cohort model.

Tue, 07/28/2020 - 04:29
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Mortality association between obesity and pneumonia using a dual restricted cohort model.

Obes Res Clin Pract. 2020 Jul 16;:

Authors: Wang H, Lee CC, Chou EH, Hsu WT, Robinson RD, Su KY, Kirby JJ, Hassani D

Abstract
BACKGROUND: An obesity survival paradox has been reported among obese patients with pneumonia.
AIMS: To determine the impact of obesity on pneumonia outcomes and analyze the correlation between in-hospital all-cause mortality and obesity among patients with pneumonia.
METHODS: The United States Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) was retrospectively analyzed for patients with pneumonia from 2013 to 2014. We used a step-wise restricted and propensity score matching cohort model (dual model) to compare mortality rates and other outcomes among pneumonia patients based on BMI. Mortality was calculated by a Cox proportional hazard model, adjusted for potential confounders with propensity score matched analysis.
RESULTS: A total of 70,886,775 patients were registered in NRD during the study period. Of these, 7,786,913 patients (11.0%) were considered obese and 1,652,456 patients (2.3%) were admitted to the hospital with pneumonia. Based on the step-wise restricted cohort model, the hazard ratio comparing the mortality rates among obese pneumonia patients to mortality rates among normal BMI pneumonia patients was 0.75 (95% CI 0.60-0.94). The propensity score matched analysis estimated a hazard rate of 0.84 (95% CI 0.79-0.90) and the hazard ratio estimated from the dual model was 0.82 (95% CI 0.63-1.07).
CONCLUSIONS: With the application of a dual model, there appears to be no significant difference in mortality of obese patients with pneumonia compared to normal BMI patients with pneumonia.

PMID: 32684413 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

Two-step predictive model for early detection of emergency department patients with prolonged stay and its management implications.

Sun, 02/23/2020 - 16:10
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Two-step predictive model for early detection of emergency department patients with prolonged stay and its management implications.

Am J Emerg Med. 2020 Jan 30;:

Authors: d'Etienne JP, Zhou Y, Kan C, Shaikh S, Ho AF, Suley E, Blustein EC, Schrader CD, Zenarosa NR, Wang H

Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To develop a novel model for predicting Emergency Department (ED) prolonged length of stay (LOS) patients upon triage completion, and further investigate the benefit of a targeted intervention for patients with prolonged ED LOS.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: A two-step model to predict patients with prolonged ED LOS (>16 h) was constructed. This model was initially used to predict ED resource usage and was subsequently adapted to predict patient ED LOS based on the number of ED resources using binary logistic regressions and was validated internally with accuracy. Finally, a discrete event simulation was used to move patients with predicted prolonged ED LOS directly to a virtual Clinical Decision Unit (CDU). The changes of ED crowding status (Overcrowding, Crowding, and Not-Crowding) and savings of ED bed-hour equivalents were estimated as the measures of the efficacy of this intervention.
RESULTS: We screened a total of 123,975 patient visits with final enrollment of 110,471 patient visits. The overall accuracy of the final model predicting prolonged patient LOS was 67.8%. The C-index of this model ranges from 0.72 to 0.82. By implementing the proposed intervention, the simulation showed a 12% (1044/8760) reduction of ED overcrowded status - an equivalent savings of 129.3 ED bed-hours per day.
CONCLUSIONS: Early prediction of prolonged ED LOS patients and subsequent (simulated) early CDU transfer could lead to more efficiently utilization of ED resources and improved efficacy of ED operations. This study provides evidence to support the implementation of this novel intervention into real healthcare practice.

PMID: 32063427 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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